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BSC116 Test 2
Terms in this set (236)
specialized cells that transport water, nutrients, etc.
Bryophyte life cycles dominated by _____________.
alternation of generations
alternating, multicellular haploid (n) and diploid (2n) phases
produce flagellated sperm
capsule on a stalk that opens via the peristome
Vascular plant life cycles dominated by _____________.
transports water + minerals from roots up to the shoots
transports sugars from where they are made (leaves) to where they are needed (flowers, fruits, roots, etc.)
modified leaves that produce sporangia
organ that produces haploid cells (spores)
clusters of sporophylls
embryo + food supply in protective coat
In _________ plants, flagellated sperm swim from male gametophyte (antheridium) to female gametophyte (archegonium).
In ________ plants, tiny male gametophyte transported to female gametophyte.
A microspore develops into a ______________.
megasporangium + megaspore + integument
"naked seeds" on cones
flowering plants, seeds "contained" in fruits
sex-organs made of up to 4 rings of specialized leaves (sporophylls)
outer-most ring of flower, usually green
part of flower that may be brightly colored to attract pollinators (e.g., bees, hummingbirds)
female flower-parts (1+ per flower)
the food supply for the seed
animals feeding on plants; plants have various adaptations to keep from being eaten
composed of cells with similar form and/or function; dermal, vascular, and ground
organization of tissues to perform some function; two main systems of vegetative growth (root & shoot system)
main vertical root, many lateral roots
no main root; lots of little branches
root tissue emanating from stems or leaves (shoot system)
grow to increase the above-ground volume occupied by branching
axillary bud growth inhibited by proximity of apical bud
stems that grow horizontally underground
stems that grow horizontally above ground
epidermis with a waxy cuticle; also non-woody parts of wood plants
xylem + phloem
between vascular tissue and dermal tissue
within vascular tissue
1 degree cell walls; photosynthesis, storage, metabolic factories, can differentiate into other cells
living support cells with unevenly thickened 1 degree cell walls
dead support cells with both 1 degree and 2 degree cell walls
dead support cells with both 1 degree and 2 degree cells walls; lignified
long narrow cells; connected by "pits" lacking 2 degree cell walls
shorter, wider cells; aligned into vessels separated by perforation plates
living cells; "conductive parenchyma cells"
long narrow cells in seedless vascular plants & gymnosperms
non- conducting partner cell connected via plasmodesmata; has nucleus, etc. that functions for both cells
growth limited to embryonic/juvenile phase
made up of embryonic, juvenile, and adult organs
complete life cycle in one year
complete life cycle in two years
can live indefinitely
perpetually embryonic tissue
responsible for primary growth (increase in length)
primary plant body
all the parts of the plant increasing in length via apical meristems; non-woody parts
cause secondary growth (increase in girth); in woody plants
adds vascular tissue
replaces epidermis with periderm
secondary plant body
all the parts of the plant that are growing without increasing in length; woody parts
new cells that retain role in meristems
cells divide and differentiate into different kinds of tissues; it is from these cells that all plant tissues arise
zone of cell division
meristem & immediate derivatives
zone of elongation
cells elongate, pushing tip forward
zone of differentiation
cells mature to specialized cell types
outer-most layer of cells in stele
inner-most layer; selective boundary with vascular tissue
apical bud meristem
shoot tip, surrounded by leaf primordia
axillary bud meristems
areas of meristem left behind by leaf primordia
openings in the epidermis that allow air to reach photosynthetic ground tissue
open and close stomata
photosynthetic parenchyma cells
cylinder of meristematic initials; between xylem/pith and phloem/cortex
cells need to grow (elongate) as well as divide
specific tissues/organs must develop at specific places (pattern formation)
cells change from unspecialized meristematic cells to specific specialized types
symmetry of division
asymmetrical allocation of cytoplasm, differentiated daughter cells
occurs parallel to stem/root axis
how leaves are arranged
water moves freely across cell membranes
solutes move down their concentration & electrochemical gradients
solute moves down concentration/voltage through a transport protein channel for molecule of correct size/charge
"pumping" a solute against its concentration gradient; does require energy
energy stored in H+ gradient & voltage difference
use H+ gradient to loosen positive ions from negatively charged soils
solute concentration & pressure; water moves from area of high potential to area of low potential
solutes always lower Ψ
physical pressure; can be positive or negative
protoplasm shrinks from cell wall
turgor pressure pushes back against expansion of protoplasm
transport proteins for water
connected spaces outside living cells
connected spaces inside of cells
crossing cell membranes
movement of fluid by pressure
waxy suberin blocks apoplastic route; must go thru selective membranes of endodermis & enter symplast; prevents back-leakage
water vapor inside humid leaves moves to lower potential of dry air
openings in leaf epidermis that let CO2 in and water out; trade- off
plants adapted to dry environments
movement photosynthetic products in phloem sap
storage or growing tissue
parent plant severed, leads to two individuals (same genome)
seeds produced my mitosis; no fertilization: e.g., dandelions
one sex or the other
able to divide and differentiate to form a new plant
cutting plants in two and combining them physically
plant that provides roots
plant grafted onto stock
chemicals that change the functioning of a target cell (and tissue)
lower part of cotyledon, connects to radicle (embryonic root)
upper part of cotyledon, with immature leaves (embryonic shoot)
sheath surrounding embryonic shoot
protects embryonic root
uptake of water
fruit from single (or multiple fused) carpels
fruit from flowers with multiple separate carpels
fruit from multiple flowers in an inflorescence; ovary walls fuse
fruit that incorporates other floral parts besides the ovaries
wind & water dispersed
lots of fruits are dispersed by animals
promotes fruit ripening, leaf abiscission, triple response, and lateral expansion
how seedlings respond to obstacles
the layer of soil closely surrounding the plant's roots
bacteria that live in close association with plant roots or in the rhizosphere
nonpathogenic bacteria that live between the cells of host plant tissues
soil adjacent to plant roots
bacteria in the rhizosphere
convert NH4+ to NO3-
swellings were nitrogen-fixation occurs
grow thru cell wall to contact cell membrane; branch to form "little trees"
sit on top of other plants (or substrates); get nutrition from rain (and decomposing organic matter)
tap into host for sustenance; host can be another plant or a fungus (mycoheterotrophic); hemiparasites (still photosynthesize), holoparasites (fully heterotrophic)
consume other organisms (usually insects); live in high acid environments (low nitrogen and other minerals); still photosynthesize
contractile cells to do generation motion
conduct electrical impulses
cell division without growth
hollow ball of cells with an internal cavity
internal cavity of blastula
invagination of blastopore to form the beginning of the gut (different in sponges)
offspring looks like a little version of the parent
young offspring (larvae) morphologically/ecologically different than the adult; must go through metamorphosis
regulate transcription of other genes; conserved across all animal taxa; but also flexible enough to support evolution of observed diversity
having a front end (head) typical of animals that move under own power
fluid-filled body cavity
body cavity lined with mesoderm
not completely lined with mesoderm
lack a body cavity
solid masses of mesoderm form; expand to filled blastocoel
mesoderm buds of endoderm of archenteron
jellyfish, sea anemones, coral
animals with bilateral body symmetry
same individual makes sperm and eggs
filter/capture food particles from the water
mouth-down, swimming, sexual stage (e.g., jellyfish)
mouth-up, sedentary, asexual stage (e.g., coral)
toothed tongue-like organ; used for feeding (except in bivalves)
for crawling (chitons, snails) or burrowing (bivalves)
space under mantle, behind visceral mass
separate sexes (exceptions in some classes)
calcium carbonate shell; secreted by dorsal epidermis
non-living organic layer made of protein and chitin that covers the epidermis
lobsters, crabs, shrimp, krill
tiny planktonic barnacles
long, flexible rod of cells that provides skeletal support
contains anterior brain and sensory organs, with a skull
pharyngeal clefts with muscles; used for gas exchange
lateral line system
sense vibrations in water ("hear")
pectoral and pelvic fins with rod-shaped bones surrounded by muscles
provide support for "walking" in the shallows
lives on land and in water
major innovation that got tetrapods fully on to land
Which set below lists an organ, a tissue, and a cell type?
a. roots, sclerenchyma, parenchyma
b. roots, xylem, parenchyma
c. stems, xylem, phloem
d. epidermis, phloem, cortex
Nectaries are organs associated with flowers that produce nectar. You identify that the cells that secrete nectar are living and have thickened walls for support. What type of cells are those?
a. sieve cells
b. parenchyma cells
c. collenchyma cells
d. sclerenchyma cells
Sugars formed in the leaves through photosynthesis are transported to the roots through the _________.
Which of these is an advantage to life on land for plants?
a. higher temperature
b. more UV light
c. more CO2
d. different structures needed for obtaining nutrients, light, and transport
Phloem sap flows from source to sink because of ___________.
Active transport involves solutes moving:
a. against concentration/voltage gradients
b. with gradients
c. together in clusters
d. apart from each other
Which of the following flower parts is sterile?
d. none of these (all are fertile)
The region of the soil influenced by plant exudates is called....
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic for most animals?
d. muscle and nerve cells
Which sponge cell type is similar to the cells of the sister group of animals?
Which of the following taxa has a true coelem?
a. Cnidaria (jellies, etc.)
b. Porifera (sponges)
c. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
d. Annelida (segmented worms)
Which phylum is characterized by animals that have a segmented body?
Which of the following is a chelicerate?
Which is NOT a trait shared by all chordates at some point of their development?
a. post-anal tail
b. hollow, dorsal nerve chord
c. ossified jaws
Which trait is shared by all vertebrates except lampreys at some point in development?
a. mouth with jaws
d. cartilaginous skeleton
e. cranium (head)
Which of the following is NOT a trait expected to have been found along the earliest "reptiles"?
b. impermeable skin
c. keratin scales
d. shelled eggs
Which of the following is NOT a diagnostic trait of primates?
a. hands and feet
b. tool use
c. flat nails
d. flat face
e. large brain
holds embryo in fluid; buffers against drying and shock in amniotic egg
gas exchange in amniotic egg
nutrient storage in amniotic egg
creates compartment for waste in amniotic egg
lay shelled eggs on land
body heated by environment
use higher metabolism to generate heat
extinct species that are more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees
the study of human origins
australopiths that had sturdy skulls and powerful jaws
australopiths that were more slender and had lighter jaws
Chordates evolved into _________.
Craniates evolved into _________.
Vertebrates evolved into _________.
Gnathostomes evolved into _________.
Osteichthyans evolved into _________.
Sarcopterygians evolved into _________.
Tetrapods evolved into _________.
+ 4 appendages
+ water-proof eggs
a group whose members share key biological features
The protist group that is most closely related to animals is a _________.
The pore in the integuments of an angiosperm ovule through which sperm is delivered is the __________.
The arrangement of leaves on a stem is called ________.
unites certain invertebrates and vertebrates
____________ (E) is a group of Protostomes, and therefore bilaterians.
____________ (L) is a group of Protostomes, and therefore bilaterians.
__________ are the only living vertebrates that lack jaws (lancelets and tunicates).
a. multicellular heterotrophs
b. multicellular autotrophs
c. unicellular heterotrophs
d. unicellular autotrophs
Secondary growth refers to growth in _________ meristems.
Primary growth refers to growth in _________ meristems.
____________ are lophotrochozoans that have a lophophore.
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