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44 terms

geol exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
which of the following is an example of a clastic sedimentary rock?
shale (Clasticseo rock= shale)
reverse faults form in response to ______ forces.
compressive (reverse faults--> compressive forces)
where does sea floor metamorphism take place?
divergent plate boundaries
which of the following statements best describes the behavior of rocks during deformation?
brittle materials deform by faulting, whereas ductile materials deform by folding
Coal is produced from the diagenesis of
swamp vegetation
a rock formed with 1000 atoms of a radioactive parent element, but contains only 250 radioactive parent atoms today. If the half-life for the radioactive element is one million years, how old is the rock?
2 million years old
An undeformed sedimentary layer is _____ than the layer above and _____ than the layer below.
older, younger
which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade?
gneiss
a diagram representing a vertical slice through the earths crust is called a?
geologic cross section
which of the following rocks is composed of clay-sized clastic sediment?
shale
which of the following sedimentary rocks is composed of biochemically precipitated silica?
chert
which of the following is not a dip-slip fault?
a right-lateral fault
an oblique-slip fault suggest
shear forces combined with compressive or tensional forces
which of the following lists is written in order of decreasing particle size?
conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone
the dip of a unit represents the
angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal
what determines whether a rock deforms in a brittle fashion versus a ductile fashion?
temperature, rate of deformation, and rock type
Burial of sediments results in
increasing pressure and increasing temperature
marble is a metamorphic rock that forms from
limestone
what kind of metamorphism would you expect to see in the rocks at a meteorite impact site?
shock
the study of the layers in sedimentary rock is know as
stratigraphy
which of the following is an erosion surface that separates two sets of sedimentary layers with non-parallel bedding planes?
angular unconformity
what type of metamorphism is caused by igneous intrusions?
contact metamorphism
the principle of superposition states that
undisturbed sedimentary layers get progressively younger from bottom to top
the line formed by the intersection of an inclined sedimentary layer and a horizontal plane is called the
strike
the parallel alignment of mica in a metamorphic rock is an example of
foliation
in an anticline
the oldest rocks occur in the center and the limbs dip away from the center
sedimentary processes take place
at or near the earths surface
what type of metamorphism is caused by high temperature and high pressure imposed over a large volume of crust?
regional
which of the following environments is an example of a shoreline environment?
deltaic
what is an unconformity?
a gap in the geologic record
the surface that divides a fold into two symmetrical halves is called
axial plane
the study of ancient life forms preserved in the rock record is referred to as
paleontology
which of the following is not a clastic sedimentary environment
evaporite
a disconformity is
an erosional surface between horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks
fossils are most common in which rock type?
sedimentary
the study of faunal succession allows
rocks to be correlated from different outcrops
the parent rock of quartzite is
sandstone
which of the following processes will cause metamorphism?
All of the above --> an increase in pressure, interaction with hydrothermal fluids, an increase in temperature
the bahamas are an example of a
carbonate platform
which of the following sequences describes the metamorphic changes in a shale with increasing metamorphic grade?
Slate-> schist -> gneiss
What is a thrust fault?
a low-angle reverse fault
which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?
sediments are deposited as horizontal layers
the three main types of sediment are
silicilastic, biological, chemical
which of the following metamorphic rocks is always foliated?
schists