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Conquest of the Mediterranean
Terms in this set (105)
What tyrant of Syracuse originally hired the Mamertines, a group of
Campanian mercenaries, only to have them seize Messana?
AGATHOCLES OF SYRACUSE
What tyrant of Syracuse had besieged the Mamertine-occupied Messana, due to which the Mamertines had asked for help from Carthage and then Rome to drive out Carthage, starting the First Punic War?
HIERO II OF SYRACUSE
Who was the first commander of the First Punic War, who defeated Hiero II of Syracuse and the Carthaginians?
APPIUS CLAUDIUS CAUDEX
What consul came as a commander and gave more relief to Messana against the Carthaginians and Syracusans?
What battle of 262 B.C. features the Romans defeating Hanno the Great and Hannibal Gisgo, after having their supply lines cut off and deciding to offer open battle?
BATTLE OF AGRIGENTUM
What battle of 260 B.C. occurs where the Roman consul Scipio Asina got his agnomen Asina by being defeated and captured after a Carthaginian naval ambush?
BATTLE OF LIPARI ISLANDS
What battle of 260 B.C. features Rome's first naval victory by the admiral Gaius Duilius against Hannibal Gisgo and the first time they used a corvus?
BATTLE OF MYLAE
After what battle of 257 B.C. does Hiero II become Rome's ally?
BATTLE OF TYNDARIS
What battle of 256 B.C. occurs at sea where Regulus and Manlius Vulso defeat Hamilcar (not Barca) and Hanno the Great, who are attempting to blockade their invasion of Africa?
BATTLE OF CAPE ECNOMUS
What battle of 255 B.C. features the Spartan mercenary Xanthippus defeating and capturing Regulus, who returns to Rome and tells the Romans to keep fighting?
BATTLE OF BAGRADAS VALLEY
What battle of 255 B.C. occurs where the Carthaginian navy is wiped out by storm when they tried to counterattack the Romans
BATTLE OF CAPE HERMAEUM
At what battle of 251 B.C. do the Carthaginians abandon all land resistance?
BATTLE OF PANORMUS
At what battle of 249 B.C. do the Romans fail to secure the stronghold there on Sicily?
BATTLE OF LILYBAEUM
What battle of 249 B.C. famously features the sacred chickens, who were thrown overboard by Claudius Pulcher because they refused to eat, which was considered a bad omen?
BATTLE OF DREPANA
What battle of 249 B.C. occurs where Iunius Pullus is defeated by Carthaginian admiral Carthalo?
BATTLE OF CAPE PASSARO
What Carthaginian man gained chief command in Sicily in 247 B.C. and gained footholds at Mt. Ercte near Panormus, and Mt. Eryx near Drepana, fighting guerilla warfare against Romans?
What war in 241 B.C., the last war of the First Punic War, occurs where the Romans, led by Lutatius Catulus and Valerius Falto defeat Hanno the Great?
BATTLE OF AEGATES ISLANDS
What strongholds are secured at the end of the First Punic War?
SECURING OF DREPANA AND LILYBAEUM
What first province did Rome receive after the First Punic War?
What occurs in the time period between the First Punic and Second Punic Wars, when Carthage had to fight her own mercenaries?
THE TRUCELESS WAR
As a result of the Truceless War, the Romans acquired what two lands, which were counted as one province?
SARDINIA AND CORSICA
Where did Carthage go to find silver to pay the huge debt that they owed to Rome?
Because Massilia complained that Hasdrubal was still conquering Spain and appealed to the Romans, what treaty of 226 B.C. was negotiated that permitted Carthage to conquer south of Spain?
EBRO RIVER TREATY
What man, tribune in 232 B.C., consul in 223 B.C. and censor in 220 B.C., crossed the Po River and attacked the Insubrians, proposed that part of Ager Gallicus be taken from the Senones, and built the Via Flaminia from Rome to Ariminum?
What role did Rome adopt to complement the praetor urbanus, which decided cases involving foreign citizens?
What international law is developed by Rome?
What war takes places from 229 to 228 B.C., where the Romans defeated Queen Teuta due to envoys complaining of piracy at her capital in Scodra?
FIRST ILLYRIAN WAR
What battle of 225 B.C. was the last Gallic invasion, where the Romans led by Regulus and L. Aemilius Papus defeated a coalition of Gauls?
BATTLE OF CAPE TELAMON
What battle of 223 B.C. occurs where Marcus Claudius Marcellus defeats the Gauls and slays Viridomarus to receive the third and final spolia opima?
BATTLE OF CLASTIDIUM
What war occurs from 220-219 B.C. where the Romans defeated the Greek adventurer Demetrius of Pharos who flees afterwards to Philip V of Macedon?
SECOND ILLYRIAN WAR
What place, a trading partner of Massilia and ally of Rome, was besieged in 219 B.C. by the Spain-conquering Hannibal, whose siege was the cause of the Second Punic War?
What was the first battle of the Second Punic War in 219 B.C.?
BATLE OF LILYBAEUM
What battle of 218 B.C. occurs where Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the Elder, the father of Scipio Africanus?
BATTLE OF TICINUS RIVER
What other consul during 218 B.C. is called away from his planned invasion of Africa to reinforce Scipio in the Battle of Ticinus River?
TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS LONGUS
What battle of 218 B.C. occurs where Hannibal and his brother Mago defeated P. Cornelius Scipio and Ti. Sempronius Longus?
BATTLE OF TREBIA RIVER
What other battle also occurs in northeastern Spain besides Trebia River, which Scipio Calvus wins in 218 B.C.?
BATTLE OF CISSA
After the battle of Trebia River in 218 B.C., what two consuls are elected in 217 B.C.?
GAIUS FLAMINIUS AND GNAEUS SERVILIUS
What battle of 217 B.C. occurs where Hannibal defeated and killed Gaius Flaminius through an ambush?
BATTLE OF LAKE TRASIMENE
What man, elected dictator after the disaster at Trasimene, known as the "Shield of Rome", received the agnomen "cunctator" for the delaying tactics he used against Hannibal?
QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS
Who was the magister equitum of Q. Fabius Maximus?
MARCUS MINUCIUS RUFUS
In what battle is Q. Fabius Maximus defeated, but almost manages to capture Hannibal?
BATTLE OF AGER FALERNUS
What two consuls of 216 B.C. replace the impatient Q. Fabius Maximus?
LUCIUS AEMILLIUS PAULUS AND GAIUS TERRENTIUS VARRO
What law of 215 B.C. limited the fashion rights of women?
What battle of 215 B.C. occurs where Scipio Africanus and Gnaeus Scipio defeat Hasdrubal?
BATTLE OF DERTOSA
What disaster occurs in 216 B.C. where Hannibal demolishes Varro and Paullus, killing 50,000-70,000 Roman soldiers?
BATTLE OF CANAE
What nation revolted against Rome during the period of 216-211 B.C.?
Who puts down the Capua Revolt in 211 B.C. and recaptures it?
QUINTUS FULVIUS FLACCUS
What nation revolted against Rome during the period of 212-209 B.C.?
Who puts down the revolt of Tarentum in 209 B.C. and recaptures it?
QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS
What siege takes place between 213-211 B.C under Marcellus, and results in the successful capturing of all of Sicily under Roman control?
SIEGE OF SYRACUSE
What grandson of Hiero II succeeded him as tyrant of Syracuse after he died?
What famous scientist, who was responsible for Syracuse's defense, was killed accidentally in the siege after the Romans rushed the city?
The first privatus to be given this power because he had not been consul nor praetor, who was given in 210 B.C. the proconsular imperium in Spain?
In 209 B.C., Scipio Africanus captured the stronghold of what territory by attacking the neglected walls on the seaward
side, where the water was usually deep?
What battle of 208 B.C. occurs after Scipio takes hold on Spain, where he defeated Hasdrubal Barca?
BATTLE OF BAECULA
What battle of 207 B.C. features Gaius Claudius Nero and Livius Salinator defeating and killing Hasdrubal Barca, whose head was thrown into the camp of Hannibal?
BATTLE OF METAURUS RIVER
What battle of 206 B.C. occurs where Scipio Africanus masterfully outmaneuvers the more numerous troops of Mago Barga and Hasdrubal Gisgo to ambush and defeat the Carthaginians, delivering close to as many losses as at Cannae for the Romans?
BATTLE OF ILIPA
What battle of 203 B.C. occurs, where Scipio Africanus, allied with G. Laelius and Masinissa, had defeated Hasdrubal Gisgo and the Numidian Syphax?
BATTLE OF CAMPI MAGNI
What woman were the two Massinissa and Syphax wanting to marry, the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisgo?
What did Sophonisba drink later because she was reluctant to be in Scipio's procession?
What battle of 202 B.C. ends the Second Punic War, where Scipio Africanus, G. Laelius, and Massinissa defeat Hannibal, causing Carthage to lose Spain forever?
BATTLE OF ZAMA
With what king of Pontus did Hannibal fight, only to commit suicide in 183 B.C.?
What king of Bithynia did the Romans force to give up Hannibal, who wandered around after losing the Second Punic War, for whom Hannibal also fought a war against Pergamum?
What series of skirmishes occurs between 215-205 B.C. between the Romans and Philip V of Macedon, who tried to seize Roman protectorates and naval bases in Illyria and invade Italy?
FIRST MACEDONIAN WAR
With what group were the Romans allied with during the First Macedonian war?
The Romans allied with the Aetolian League and, under what Roman, did they defeat Philip V twice at Lamia in 209 B.C.?
MARCUS VALERIUS LAEVINUS
What Roman in 206 B.C. negotiated with Philip V, leading to the Peace of Phoenike in 205 BC between Philip V and Rome?
What series of conflicts between 200-196 B.C. occurred because Philip V tried to expand in Greece and Pergamum and Rhodes asked Rome for help?
SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR
In 200 B.C., what Roman is elected consul for the second time with Macedon as his province?
PUBLIUS SULPUCIUS GABA
In 198 B.C. who is elected consul by the Romans, fluent
in Greek and proclaimed "Freedom and self-determination of all Greeks"?
TITUS QUINCTIUS FLAMINIUS
What battle of 198 B.C. results in Flaminius defeating Philip V?
BATTLE OF AOUS RIVER
What battle of 198 B.C. occurs when Titus Quinctius Flamininus leads Rome and the Aetolian League to decisively defeat Philip?
BATTLE OF CYENOSCEPHALAE
In 197 B.C., the southern and western part of the Iberian Peninsula were divided into Hispania Citerior, Hispania Ulterior. What group dominated the rest of the peninsula?
What Lusitanian Chieftain, called "first national hero of Portugal", was an expert in guerilla warfare, who fights with the Romans for eight years, and traps 50,000 Romans in 141 BC, releasing them in exchange for a treaty respecting the sovereignty of his people?
Viriathus is defeated after what man bribed his agents to betray him?
What battle of 195 B.C. occurs where The Romans under Flamininus, along with Rhodes, Pergamum, and the Achaean League, defeated Nabis and Sparta?
BATTLE OF GYTHIUM
What battle of 194 B.C. involves the ending of the Gallic incursions into Italy?
BATTLE OF MUTINA
What war pits against Antiochus III, who was allied with the Aetolian League and Hannibal?
What battle of 191 B.C. involves the defeat of Antiochus III by Manius Acilius Glabrio and Cato the Elder?
BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE
What battle of 190 B.C. involves the defeat of the Rhodian fleet of Polyxenidas by Regulus?
BATTLE OF MYONESSUS
What battle of 190 B.C. involves ex-consul Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Scipio Asiaticus, brother of Africanus, with the aid of Eumenes II of Pergamum defeating Antiochus III?
What treaty of 188 B.C. ends the Seleucid War?
TREATY OF APAMEA
What son of Philip V was put to death on false charges of treason?
What war happens in 181 B.C.?
What son of Philip V rose to the throne after he fell ill and died?
What war occurs between 171-168 B.C.?
THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR
What battle occurs in 171 B.C. with the defeat of Crassus by Perseus?
BATTLE OF CALLINICUS
In 168 BC, the Romans intervened to save the throne of their friends the Ptolemies, sending what senatorial envoy to "request" that Antiochus withdraw from Egypt?
GAIUS POPILLIUS LAENAS
What battle occurs in 168 B.C. where L. Aemilius Paullus defeated Perseus?
BATTLE OF PYDNA
To where is Perseus exiled?
In 161 B.C., Rome concluded a treaty with what leader of the insurrection against the Seleucids in Palestine?
In 152 B.C. the senate supported what man's ascent to the Seleucid throne?
What group does Cato the Elder fight against and Marcellus make peace with in 151 B.C.?
What war occurs between 150-148 B.C?
FOURTH MACEDONIAN WAR
What conflict occurs between 149-146 B.C. because Numidia was raiding Carthaginian territory, and Carthage retaliated without Roman consent?
THIRD PUNIC WAR
What battle occurs in 148 B.C. where Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeats Andriscus and Macedonia is made a province?
SECOND BATTLE OF PYDNA
What man besieges Carthage which falls after three years, leading Africa to become a Roman province in 146 B.C.?
What battle of 146 B.C. marks the end of the Greco-Roman conflict, where Romans led by Lucius Mummius defeated the Achaean League and destroyed Corinth under their dictator Critolaus?
BATTLE OF CORINTH
When Antiochus IV said he wanted time to think about it, what did Laenas do?
DREW A CIRCLE OF SAND AROUND HIM
What nation did Antiochus IV try to Hellenize?
What man saves the captured Hostilius Mancinus by negotiating a peace treaty with the Numantines?
In 137 B.C., the Numantian garrison of 4000 men captured what Roman commander who failed to take the city?
What war between 135-132 B.C. does Rome defeat Eunus and Cleon, headquartered at Enna on Siciliy?
FIRST SERVILE WAR
Who bequeathed his whole kingdom of Pergamum to Rome in 133 B.C. after he died?
Who captures the city of Numantia in 133 BC?
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