Intro to Nursing Exam 1

1) Health care workforce
2) RN's
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Terms in this set (242)
Nursing in US Today:
1) This force depends on high quality, culturally competent nursing care that depends on a culturally diverse nursing workforce
2) Takes a national comprehensive survey of nursing workforce every 4 years
3) What boards found that more than 4 million individuals held licenses as RNs in 2013
Nursing in the Workforce:
1) Having older nurses is a possible result of the _________ in which ______ were high
2) Minorities make up 37% of population in the US but only ___% of RN population- there is an (overrepresentation/underrepresentation) by about ____%
3) Only group that has higher population in nursing than in normal population is ________ or ______ (4% in normal and 5% in nursing), which is (overrepresentation/underrepresentation)
Evidence-based practiceRefers to nursing care that is based on the best *available research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preference*1) Research evidence 2) Clinical expertise 3) Patient preferencesEvidence-based practice refers to nursing care that is based on the best available ___1___, ____2___, and ____3___RN's with a *bachelors or higher* degreeResearch has demonstrated that patient outcomes are more *positive* for patients cared for by _________ with what kind of nursing degree?1) False- you must be state board approved 2) False- it is more positive for patients cared by RNs with a BSN or higher 3) True (by 4%)(True/False): 1) Once you graduate nursing school and take the NCLEX, you are officially a nurse and can get a job as an RN 2) Patient outcomes are more positive when cared for by any degree of nurse- not just a specific degree 3) Diploma programs have been on decline1) BSN graduates 2) Because the current workforce is *older* and will be older than 55 by 2020 3) White, non-hispanicsNursing in the Workforce: 1) The rise in the number of nurses *under the age of 30* is attributed to the *increase* in the number of ________ 2) How is *age* an issue in the nursing workforce? 3) In 2008, what ethnicity of nurses made up the majority? (83.2%)Evidence-basedKnowing to turn your patient every 2 hours to decrease constipation would be an example of what kind of nursing practice?1) The Hospital 2) -Staff nurses -Clinical nurse specialist - Charge nurses 3) Hospital-wide basis 4) It was first practiced informally in home and community settingsPractice Settings for Professional Nurses: 1) What is the primary work site for nurses/the most common setting? 2) What are three examples of *direct patient care*? (under hospital nursing work) 3) Educators, Managers and Administrators establish the direction of nursing on a __________ 4) Where was nursing care *originated*?1) Under direct patient care 2) As educators 3) As managers 4) AdministratorsWhat are the 4 areas in the *hospital* where nurses can work as?1) Direct patient care (in the hospital) 2) Ambulatory care setting 3) Nursing in communities 4) Nursing in communities 5) Nursing in communitiesPractice Setting for Professional Nurses: Say which area/setting the following jobs fall under: 1) Staff nurse 2) Emergency settings 3) Nursing homes 4) Health departments 5) Hospices homes, community based settings1) Running a *staffing agency for nurses* 2) Via *teleheath*, which is a travel nurse 3) Managing information in nursing 4) They work with *end of life settings*Nursing Opportunities: 1) What opportunity is found under *nursing in business*? 2) How can nurses work from a *distance*? 3) This type of nursing work works in hospitals and helps *maintain electronic health records* 4) Nurses in *pallative care* do what?1) Nurse educators 2) Clinical nurse leaders 3) Nurse practitioner (NP) 4) Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) 5) Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) 6) Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)What 6 areas of nursing require *advanced degrees*?1) Complementary application 2) Substitutive applicationWhat are two issues in *advances nursing practice*?1) Substitutive application 2) Complementary applicationIssues in Advanced Practice Nursing: 1) These are when the functions are *similar and equal* 2) These are when the functions are *different and equal*1) Health programs 2) Chronic IllnessesNurses that work in *communities* focus on improving the overall health of communities by planning and implementing _____1_____ as well as delivering care for individuals with ___2____1) Associate degree (2 year) 2) BSNThe majority of nurses get their initial nursing education in ____1____ , and a slightly lower precentage report having a ____2___ as their *first degree*1) By conducting *immunization clinics* and *health screenings*; they also work with teachers, parents, physicians and community leaders 2) In health maintenance, disease prevention, nutrition and childcareNurses that work in *communities*: 1) How do they work as community leaders to work toward a healthier community? 2) What type of *education programs* do they provide?Advance skills while skill *working directly with patients*The *clinical ladder* concept benefits nurses by allowing them to _______ while still doing what?1) Continuing education 2) Demonstrate clinical competence 3) Pursue formal education *and become certified*The clinical ladder is a multi-step program that begins with *entry level* staff nurse positions, and as nurses gain experience, they can participate in ____1____, ____2___, and become ____3___, which allows them to become eligible to *move up the clinical ladder*AutonomyA main issue in advanced practice nursing are roadblocks to full practice _______ (difference between physicians and nurse practitioners)Bureau of Labor StatisticsThis is a division of the US department of Labor that is confident about nursing's overall employment prospects in the near and distant futureGrow (19%) "Much faster than average" growthNurses can expect employment opportunities to (grow/decline) through the year 20221) Biblical times 2) - Sense of identity - Learn from mistakes - Sense of pride (and professional identity) 3) Because it provides a *framework* for understanding how *nursing is practice today*Nursing History: 1) Evidence of nursing began in __________ 2) What are the 3 reasons we *study nursing history*? 3) How is having knowledge of nursing's past beneficial to the profession?1) True 2) False- they are very differentHistory and Social Context of Nursing: 1) (True/False) Present day nurses *cannot effectively* address important issues without a foundation of historical knowledge 2) (True/False) Nursing profession is the same thing as nursing occupation- they work hand in hand1) It was not respectable 2) Daughters of Charity, created to assist the *poor and the sick* 3) Men, monks and nunsNursing History: Reformation (1500): 1) During this time, how was the *public image* for nurses? 2) What institution was formed during the reformation period? What was its role? 3) What three groups of people *disappeared* during this time as caregivers?1) Reformation period 2) Renaissance period 3) The nightingale eraNursing History: 1) Under which time period was the *daughter's of charity* established? What is it's role and is it still here today? 2) During which period was there a *medical knowledge revolution*? 3) During which era was the *Crimean War*?Investigation of *illness and their causes* 1) Thermometer 2) Syringe 3) Stethoscope 4) X-ray 5) Anesthesia, etc.During the *Renaissance* period, there was a medical knowledge revolution which includes advances in scientific investigation of ___________, which includes what the creation of what 5 things?1) Modern nursing 2) Infection control, hospital epidemiology, and hospice care 3) Applied statistics 4) Introduced women into the British ArmyNursing History: The Nightingale Era: 1) Nightingale is the founder of ________ 2) Nightingale's influences today extends beyond her undeniable impact on the field of modern nursing to the areas of ________, ________, and ________ 3) Nightingale used applied _____ in order to develop her *policies* 4) What did she do in regards to women?1) Crimean War 2) - Reform army sanitary practices - Establish a school for nurses 3) By *cleaning up conditions*, and by telling the doctors to *wash their hands*Nursing History: The Nightingale Era: 1) What war was during Nightingale's era? 2) What were her *two goals* when leaving this war? 3) How did she change the mortality rate in the war from 60% to 2% and *how did she do this*?1) The *first formal education program* 2) "Nightingale nurses" 3) Women of *high moral character* and *ability*Nursing History: The Rise of Modern Nursing: 1) What major institution was created during this time for nurses? 2) What was there a *high demand for* during this time? 3) What type of women did Nightingale accept?1) The nightingale training school in *London* 2) *St. Thomas Hospital*Nursing History: The Rise of Modern Nursing: 1) What was the *first formal educational* program for nurses called? Which city was it located in? 2) What was this educational program called?1) Nurses 2) Dorthea Dix, Clara Barton, and Superintendent Sally Tompkins 3) Improvements in care; moved toward *formal education and training*Nursing History: The Civil War: 1) What was there a *call for* during this time period? 2) What three major *women* worked during the civil war? 3) Overall, the civil war demonstrated dramatic improvements in _____ and moved toward __________1) Dorothea dix 2) Clara Barton 3) False- there were *no professional nurses*Nursing History: The Civil War: 1) Who was the *superintendent* of women *nurses in the union army*? 2) Who *tended to union soldiers* 3) (True/False) There were professional nurses during the civil war, but they were scarce1) Clara Barton 2) Clara Barton- it *founded supplies* 3) A training program for *women nurses in the army*; also allowed African American women to train 4) She was the only woman in confederacy *to hold military rank*Nursing History: The Civil War: 1) Who was the "Angel of the battlefield"? 2) Who founded the *American Red Cross*? What was it? 3) Dorothea dix created what type of training program during this time? Why was this different? 4) What did *Sally Tompkins* do?1) Civil War 2) Mary Mahoney and Mary Adelaide Nutting 3) New England HospitalNursing History: Formal Education and Training: 1) This period of time was after *which war*? 2) Who were two significant women during this time period? 3) What was the *first training school in America* for nurses in the US?1) Crimea War; No, she did not 2) "Greatest Black Briton" 3) No, because her request to be a part of Nightingale's team *was refused* 4) She established a *hotel for soldiers* and provided care for *injured soldiers in the Crimea war*Mary Seacole (1805-1881): 1) Made contributions to which war? Did she work with Nightingale? 2) What nickname was given to her? 3) Did she refer to herself as a nurse? Why or why not? 4) What did she establish during her life and what was the purpose (hint: was during the war)1) Mary Mahoney 2) Linda Richards 3) It was *modeled after Nightingale's* school, and you *also had to be female* 4) Mary MahoneyNursing History: Formal Education and Training: 1) Who was the first trained *African American* nurse in the US? 2) Who was the *first trained nurse* in the US? 3) Describe the setup of the New England Hospital (which was the first training school in the US) 4) Who was the co-founder of the *National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses*?1) Nursing to *professional* status 2) It was *Notes on Nursing*; Mastering a unique body of knowledge was *required* 3) That if we use a *clean area*, we can *reduce the amount of deaths*Florence Nightingale: 1) What she start the rise in (in regards to nursing)? 2) What was her most famous publication? Which states clearly for the first time that ________ was required of those wishing to *practice professional nursing*? 3) What statistics did she *show for*?The Nightingale schoolWhat become the model for *nursing education* in the US?1) For being the *first trained African American* nurse in the US and for being the *co-founder of the national association of colored graduate nurses* 2) She improved during education at *John Hopkins* (and was the first woman to hold professorship at Columbia) and helped establish the *American Journal of Nursing*Nursing History: Formal Education and Training: 1) Mary Mahoney was *significant* during this period for what *2 reasons*? 2) Mary Adelaide Nutting was *significant* during this period for what *2 reasons*?1) National League for Nursing 2) American Nurses Association (ANA) 3) International Council of Nurses All developed in the *1800s* (1890s)What are the 3 professional organizations we need to know and *which year* were all of them established?Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary (now Spelman college)This was the first program established exclusively for training of *African American* women in nursing (and what is it now called)?1) The Altlana Baptist Female Seminary 2) School of Male Nurses at the New York City of Training SchoolNursing History: Formal Education and Training: 1) What program forming led to a *diploma in nursing* being formed? 2) What was the first training of men in nursing? Where was it?1) Modeled after Nightingale's school 2) Had to be *female* to train 3) Few admitted *African American* studentsEarly *training schools* for nurses in the *US* usually shared what 3 characteristics? (During the Formal education and training period)1) National League for Nursing 2) American Nurses Association 3) Internal Council of NursesProfessional Nursing Organizations (1890): 1) This organization addressed issues in *nursing education* 2) This organization *enhances collaboration* among nurses and educators 3) This organization was the first to *unite nursing organizations of all nations* and was the first discussion of *registration of nurses*Changing the name of the organization to the *National League for Nursing* at the Chicago's World FairWhat became a pivotal point in nursing history? (had to do with professional organizations)1) Nursing education 2) Between *nurses and educators* 3) - Unite nursing organizations of *all nations* -Discussed *registration of nurses*Professional Organizations: 1) The NLN addresses issues regarding what? 2) The ANA did enhanced collaboration between what two groups? 3) The International Council of Nurses had what two roles?1) *Untrained caregivers* by the army surgeons trying to enlarge the hospital corps 2) Clara Mass; Theory on how the *yellow fever* was spread in Cuba 3) Typhoid, malaria, dengue and yellow feverNursing History: The Spanish American War: 1) What led to the spread of disease during this war? 2) Who volunteered to be bitten by carrier mosquitoes to help prove the theory on what? 3) What four diseases were most prevalent during this war?The Spanish American WarDuring which war was the *first attempt* to use only *trained nurses* in war?1) - Army Nurse Corps - Navy Nurse Corps *Anita M Mcgee* was the head of the hospital corps 2) To an *all graduate* nursing service 3) Typhoid feverNursing History: The Spanish American War: 1) This war set the stage for what two *corps* and who was the head of the corps? 2) What did this war *lead to* to advance nursing? 3) What disease created a *greater need* than anticipated during this time period?1) Spanish American War 2) Sisters of Holy Cross and untrained African American nurses 3) Because they had *already had the disease*Typhoid Fever: 1) Which war did this disease pose a big problem in? 2) As a result of this disease, the ________ and the ________ nurses who has typhoid fever in the past were accepted for service 3) Why were these nurses accepted even though they had had it in the past?Namahyoke CurtisWho was employed as a *contract nurse* in the *Spanish-American War* and made her the first *trained African American* nurse in this capacity?1) Henry Street Settlement in NYC 2) NY Board of Health 3) Through showing companies would save money by *reducing the number* of deaths benefits they paid 4) The National Organization for Public HealthLilian Ward: 1) She founded the ________, which was the *first formalized* public health nursing practice (still in operation) 2) What did she develop to help with *schooling of nursing*? 3) How did she advance insurance reimbursement for *home nursing care*? 4) What did she found for *public health*?1) Due to the influx of immigrants 2) Healthcare education, health promotion and disease prevention to immigrant communities 3) Margaret SangerLilian Ward and the Henry Street Settlement in NYC: 1) Why were infectious diseases becoming rampant during this time period? 2) What did Lilian Ward offer in this settlement to help combat the disease? 3) This woman's work was inspired by plight of immigrant women on Lower East Side and become the face of battle for *safe contraception* and *family planning for women*Lilian WardWho was the founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)?1915By _______, *public health nurses* were experiencing independent, status and professional opportunitiesPublic health nurse primarilyLilian Ward was what type of nurse?1) The *Army School of Nursing* 2) Flu epidemic of 1917; It infected *1/3* of the population 3) Care at home and in the war 4) Congress passing a bill giving nurses *relative rank*Nursing History: World War I: 1) During this war, what was established in regards to nursing? 2) What *epidemic* was there during this war? How much of the world population did it infect? 3) Nursing during this time demonstrated the ability to provide care ______ and in ________ 4) What significant step for nursing recognition was taken during this time?1) The flu epidemic of 1917 2) 1920Nursing History: World War I: 1) What increased public awareness of the need for *public health* nursing during this time? 2) In what year did Congress pass the bill giving nurses *relative rank*?1) That Nurses *did not have to be registered* to practice but COULD NOT use the title of RN unless they were *registered* 2) 1923 3) NC, NJ, NY and VA (in 1903)Nursing History: Licensure (early 1900s): 1) During this time *permissive licensure* was established- what did this mean for nurses that were registered? 2) By what year did ALL states have *exams* for permissive licensure? 3) What were the first 4 states to allow for permissive licensure?1) National League of Nurses 2) New York (in 1947) 3) Licensing exam nation wide; Each jurisdiction sets its own *pass rate*Nursing History: Licensure (early 1900s): 1) What professional organization opened a state board test pool in this time to *facilitate licensure*? 2) What state became the *first* to require *mandatory licensure*? (and not just permissive)? 3) Nursing was the first profession to use the same _________ nation wide, however each jurisdiction set its own _________The institution of state licensure for nursesWhat was a *huge milestone* for nursing in the early 20th century?1) Flu epidemic of 1917 2) The *Army* school of nusingWWI: 1) What increased the need for *public health* nursing during WWI? 2) What school of nursing was established during this time?1) 1940s 2) New York (passed in the 1930s) 3) 1900s (20th century)Licensure: 1) Until the ______ we *did not* require licensures worldwide 2) Which state was the first to require mandatory licensure? 3) What year (general) did the institution of state licensure for nurses occur?1) Student 2) Because it was *private duty nurses* which forced many nurses into unemployment 3) Because of severe economic conditions 4) They would work for the hospitals for *minimum wage* instead of doing private practiceNursing History: The Great Depression (1929- late 1930s): 1) The hospitals were staffed with _______ nurses 2) Why could families *no longer afford* nursing? 3) Why were schools of nursing forced to close during this time? 4) Because of this decrease in nursing jobs and education, unemployed nurses were forced to work where and for what type of pay?1) Social Security Act 2) They were unemployed and jobless- were forced to work for *minimum wage* 3) They both closedNursing History: The Great Depression (1929- late 1930s): 1) What *act* was passed during this time? 2) What happened to nurses and their jobs during this time? 3) What happened to hospitals and nursing schools during this time?1) Great Depression 2) Created public health 3) Created hospital jobsThe *Social Security Act* was founded in the __1_____ time period, and overall it created __2__ and ___3___1) Old-age insurance 2) To bring the nation *out of the great depression* 3) Public health nursing 4) It allows *federal grants* for maternal child services, *vocational rehab* for the handicapped, and created an unemployment systemSocial Security Act: 1) National system for ___________ 2) Why was this act passed by FDR? 3) What facet of nursing did this act *enhance*? 4) What did this act do for maternal child services, the handicapped, and the unemployed?1) 54- they cared for both American and Japanese soldiers most of which had TB (and contracted it while still having to care for them) 2) Cadet Nurse Corps 3) 1 million dollars for *nursing education*Nursing History: WWII (1939-1945): 1) How many army nurses were *Japanese* prisoners of war? What were their roles as prisoners? 2) During this war, military and collegiate programs formed an alliance called the ________, which was an alliance to *train student nurses* 3) What did *Congress* provide for nurses during this time?1) Hill Burton Act 2) -Military nurses awareded *full commissioned officer status* in both Army and Navy Nurse corps -Segregation of African American nurse in the military ended -Men allowed to enter *military nursing corps* 3) New focused nursing on *scientific basis* for nursing practice and as *clinical nursing research* beganPost WWII: 1) What act was passed post WWII? 2) What three significant things for nurses occurred during this post WWII period? 3) What lead to the *journal of nursing research* to first be published1) Construct new hospitals 2) To form *Team nursing* and *associate degree* nursingPost WWII: 1) The *Hill Burton* act during this time allows for funds in order to __________ 2) What was this act's response to the *acute shortage* of nurses?1) WWII 2) Scientific basic 3) Clinical nursing researchThe Journal of Nursing Research was first published in the time period directly *following* ___1___ and it was started due to the focus on nursing on a ___2____ for practice and as ___3_____ nursing research began1) Trauma care 2) The Purple Heart award 3) Vietnam's Women Memorial statueNursing History: Vietnam (1959-1975): 1) What type of *care* was improved during this war through mobile hospitals and nurses working without physicians? 2) What was dedicated to the crucial role nurses had in this War? 3) What award of honor was dedicated to those in the Vietnam War?1) They did tracheotomies and chest tube insertions 2) Due to lack of support at home (because this war was controversial)Nursing History: Vietnam (1959-1975): 1) What did nurses execute without physicians which helped improve trauma care during this war? 2) Why did most nurses and soldiers get *PTSD* from this war?1) - 2 amendments to the Social Security Act - Specialty care - Feminism and the Woman's movement 2) Establishing medicare and medicaid 3) Idaho (1971)Nursing History: Specialty Care and Clinical Specializations (1960s-1980s): 1) What three major points did we see during this time period? 2) What were the amendments to the Social security act? 3) What was the first state to *recognize diagnosing and treating* as a part of the legal scope of practice for NPs1) Hospitals 2) Due to a shortage of primary physicians 3) Improved *access* to health careNursing History: Specialty Care and Clinical Specializations (1960s-1980s): 1) During this time, what was the preferred place of employment for nurses? 2) For *specialty care*, clinical specialization for nurses developed due to a shortage of what? 3) There is a public demand for improved ________ to ________1) Medicaid (covering 9.2% of the population) 2) It employed nurses to provide the bulk of care, and more people came to the hospital so the occupancy increased 3) Because hospital charges were *reimbursed through Medicare*Nursing History: Specialty Care and Clinical Specializations (1960s-1980s): 1) Due to the amending of the Social Security Act, _______ quickly became the *largest public assistance* program in the nation 2) How did amending this Social Security affect the hospital occupancy and jobs for nurses? 3) Why were medicare patients attracted to hospitals?1) The *shortage* of primary care physicians 2) Specialty units (like ICUs) 3) Johnson's "Great Society" reformsNursing History: Specialty Care and Clinical Specializations (1960s-1980s): 1) What caused specialty nursing practices to arise? 2) Technological advances caused the creation of _________ 3) _______ fostered the emergence of the NP in primary care1) Women had more career choices 2) Brought economic issues to the forefront 3) Increased number of students educated in collegesWhat are the 3 ways that the *women's movement* both helped and hurt nursing?1) -HIV/AIDS -Life support 2) Needs, catheters, and gloves 3) About *transmission* of disease 4) Advanced DirectivesNursing History: Challenges in Nursing (1983-2000): 1) What two main issues were brought to the forefront? 2) The AIDS epidemic changed the landscape of healthcare affecting everything from materials such as _____, _______ and ______ 3) What did AIDS teach us? 4) Life support debate brought to light the need for ____________1) To ensure that all medical staff can *respond effectively* during a wide-scale disaster 2) Disaster management 3) Increasing preparednessNursing History: Post 9/11, Natural Disasters and Health Care Reform: 1) Why did *disaster drills* become a routine in all hospitals? 2) Post 9/11 attacks, ________ become a *priority focus* of nursing efforts 3) Nursing as a profession has responded how to human catastrophes/natural disasters?1) Affordable Care Act (ACA); The ANA supported it 2) To children and teens *younger than 19* because of preexisting conditions 3) Preexisiting conditionNursing History: Post 9/11, Natural Disasters and Health Care Reform: 1) What act was passed during this time and which nursing organization supported it? 2) This act prevented insurance companies from denying coverage to whom? 3) Overall, this act said people cannot be denied due to a ___________Electronic health recordsWith regards to technology, what aspect of it *improves continuity* of care?It is a perennial problem, meaning it is ever lasting and we always have issues with thisWhat type of problem is *nursing shortage*?1) Jesse Sleet Scales 2) Mary BreckinridgeMinorities in Nursing: 1) This was a visionary African American nurse, who was among the first to bring *community health nursing principles* to the tenants of NYC 2) Founder of the *Frontier Nursing Service* in 1925 (FNS), who delivered babies, provided prenatal and postnatal care, educated families on nutrition, hygiene and care of the sick1) Nursing faculty; lack of space/teachers 2) -Increase the number of Nurses - Create a less trained worker to supplement nursesNursing Shortage: 1) Shortage of nurses is due to the shortage of _________, which is denied entry of eligible students because of lack of ________ 2) What were the two attempted solutions to the nursing shortage?1) Importing nurses from *other countries* 2) -Licensed practical nurse (LPN) - Associate degree programs (ADN) - EMTs, respiratory therapistsNursing Shortage: 1) How did they attempt to increase the number of nurses to solve the shortage? 2) What three solutions were created in order to create a *less trained worker* to supplement nurses?WWIILess trained workers to supplement nurses were licensed practical nurses, which was formed during ___1__1) Sarah/Sairey Gamp (drunken nurse in a Dicken's novel) 2) Wars (the need to recruit nurses) 3) TV and movie sterotypes (Nurse Ratched, gay male nurses) 4) Woodhull Study (Nursing invisible to the media/public)Why is the nursing image seen as "bad" (4 reasons)?Internal: salary issues, long hours, increased responsibility for unlicensured workers External: changes in demand for nursing services, increased age of American population, degree of illness, etc.The causes of nursing shortages can be seen as either external or internal- what type of things fall under external? What about internal?1) Social context (who chooses to be a nurse) 2) The image of nursing 3) Gender 4) National population trends 5) Technology 6) Aging of America and Nursing (nurses are aging)What are the 6 influences of the nursing shortage?National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse AssociationsNational Associations for Black, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Alaska Native American Indian, Hispanic, and Philippine Nurses in order to help the nursing shortageNurses who are attuned to culture and cultural differencesAttention to the development of ____________has become an integral part of progressive nursing education programsWhen Roosevelt ordered the end to the *exclusion of African American* nurses in the militaryWhat opened the door for employment of African Americans in ALL areas of war-time production?1) Use of a *professional organization* as a primary point of reference 2) The belief in the *value of public service* 3) Belief in *self-regulation* 4) Commitment to a profession that goes *beyond economic incentives* 5) Sense of *autonomy* in practiceWhat are the 5 attributes of a *profession*?1) Admission and graduation 2) ProfessionCharacteristics of a Profession: 1) The *Flexner report* called for medical schools to implement *high standards* for _____ and _______ 2) Flexnor created a list of criteria that he believed to be a characteristic of a ________1) Intellecutual 2) Based on a *body of knowledge* that can be learned 3) Is practical and theoretical 4) Can be taught through *highly specialized professional education* 5) Has strong *internal member organization* and *group consciousness* 6) Has practitioners that are motivated by *Altruism*What are 6 the criteria that Flexor believed to be a characteristic of a *profession*?The desire to help others; is a characteristic of a profession by FlexorWhat is altruism? What is this a characteristic of?1) Service 2) Specialized knowledge 3) Autonomy (control over one's own practice/ethics)Among different people and MODELS, what 3 characteristics always appear with professionism?Houle______ identified characteristics that indicate that an occupation moves along the continuum towards professional status (Occupation --> Profession)1) Defining the groups *mission and foundations* of practice 2) Mastery of theoreticial knowledge, development of the capacity to solve problem, use of practical knowledge and self-enhancement (*continued learning and development*) 3) Development of a *collective identity* as an occupation evolves into a professionWhat are the 3 steps *Houle* gave in order to indicate how an occupation moves to professional status?1) Collective identity 2) Collective identityHoule's Occupation-Profession Continuum: 1) Development of a _______ as an occupation evolves into a profession 2) Connection and feeling of similarities that individuals in a group *feel with one another*1) Preparation 2) CommitmentWhat are the two main ways that professionalism is *different* from an occupation?1) Professional Preparation 2) Professional commitmentProfessionalism versus Occupation: 1) This is a difference between the two that says personal identification is *derived from the profession* and is a "calling" 2) This is a difference between the two that says acting in a logical, rational manner using scientific knowledge and prescribed ways of thinking is better than relying on simple problem solving1) Professional Preparation 2) Professional commitment 3) Professional preparation 4) Professional commitmentSay whether the following falls under Professional preparation or professional commitment: 1) The nursing process 2) Commitment transcends expectation of a material reward 3) Thinking through problems rather that using trial and error 4) It is less common to change careers than an occupation1) Occupation 2) Profession 3) Occupation 4) ProfessionSay whether the following is an occupation or a profession: 1) Training occurs on the job 2) Education is *prolonged* 3) Accountability rests with the *employer* 4) Workers are autonomous1) Occupation 2) Profession 3) Occupation 4) OccupationSay whether the following is an occupation or a profession: 1) Work in manual and is guided by experience/trial and error 2) People are *unlikely* to change profession 3) Values, beliefs and ethics are NOT an integral part of preparation 4) Workers are supervised1) Integrated 2) Cohesive 3) Client/family/population*Inter-Professionality* is a process by which professionals reflect on and develop ways of *practicing* that provides an __1___ and ___2___ answer to the needs of the ______3_____1) Values/ethics for interprofessional practice 2) Roles/responsibilities 3) Interprofessional communication 4) Teams and teamworkWhat are the four domains for the *interprofessional education collaborative expert panel report*? (For interprofessionality)1) The services provided are *vital to the humanity* and welfare of society 2) There is a *special body of knowledge* that is continually enlarged through *research* 3) The services involve *intellectual activity*; individual responsibility (*accountability*) is a strong feature 4) Practitioners are *educated in institutions of higher learning* 5) Practitioners are relatively independent and *control their own policies and activities* (autonomy) 6) Practitioners are *motivated by service* (altruism) and consider their work an important component of their lives 7) There is a *code of ethics* to guide the decisions and conduct of practitioners 8) There is an *organization* (association) that encourages and supports high standards of practiceWhat are Kelly's *8 characteristics of a Profession*?Control over one's practiceWhat is autonomy?1) Caring is the *core of professional nursing* in which nurses intervene for their patients 2) Theory and research (evidence based practice) 3) Critical and creative thinking 4) To someone for something someone has doneKelly's 8 Characteristics of a Profession: 1) How are services we do (from his first step) different from *caring*? 2) When he said that knowledge is enlarged through *research*, this means that nursing increasingly relies on _______ and ______ as a basis for practice 3) _____ and _____ thinking serves as a basis for providing nursing care (The nursing process) 4) Accountability is being answerable about what?1) 3rd step (accountability) 2) 2nd step 3) 5th step 4) Ideal service to othersKelly's 8 Characteristics of a Profession: 1) Under which characteristic do we see the *nursing process*? 2) Under which characteristic do we see the *evidence-based practice* 3) Under which step does *autonomy* play a large role? 5) What is *altruism*?Nightingale's Pledge; Now, The *International Council of Nurses* and *ANA* established a Code of Ethics todayWhat functioned as the first *nursing's code of ethics*? What council established this code in more recent times?False- all it does it provide *professional framework for moral decision making*(True/False) The *Code of Ethics* specifies how you should act in a specific situation in which you do not know what to doAmerican Nurses Association (ANA)What is the *official voice* of nursing and is the primary advocate for nursing interests1) Foster high standards of nursing 2) Work for the improvement of health standards/the availability of healthcare services of all people 3) To stimulate and promote the professional development of nurses and advance their economic and general wealth fareWhat are the three purposes of the American Nurses Association (ANA)?A significant political influence being unrealizedWhat does *low participation* in the ANA cause?1) Nursing's social policy statement 2) Nursing scope and standards of practice 3) Code of ethicsWhat are the three documents that guide all nurses in their *professional commitment*?1) Nursing's Social Policy Statement 2) Scope and Standards of Practice 3) Code of EthicsDocuments Guiding Nursing Profession: 1) This serves as a *framework* for understanding professional nurses relationship with *society* and nurse's *obligation to those who receive care* 2) This outlines the *expectations of the professional role* in which all RNs must practice 3) Tool that guides a group toward professional self definition and provides *evidence of professional legitimacy*1) It is a statement of ethical values, obligations, and ideals of nurses individually and *professionally* 2) It is nurses *non-negotiable* ethical standard 3) It expresses nursing's own understanding of its *commitment to society*What are the three purposes of the *code of ethics*?The code of ethicsWhat statement best supports *nursing as a profession*?1) Professional 2) *Society* 3) Professional 4) Nursing's Social Policy StatementDocuments Guiding Nursing Profession: 1) The *code of ethics* provides evidence of _______ legitimacy 2) Nursing's *social policy statement* serves to help us understand nurses's relationship with __________ 3) Scope and standards of practice outlines the expectations of the _________ role 4) What document gives us the *essence* of the profession?1) Work environment 2) Cooperation 3) Interdependence among membersCollegiality: The essence of collegiality is promotion of a *supportive and healthy* _____1___, ____2____, and recognition of ____3____ among members of the nursing profession1) Varying levels of education for entry into practice 2) Gender issues 3) Historical influences 4) External conflicts 5) Internal conflictsWhat are the five *barriers* to *professionalism in nursing*?The University of Minnesota (1909)Where was the *first university-based* nursing?1) It lacks a *standardized requirement* for a minimum of a BSN 2) Isabelle Hampton Robb 3) Internal conflicts 4) External conflictsBarriers to professionalism in nursing: 1) For varying levels of education, how does nursing stand in sharp contrast with other health care professionals in regards to education? 2) Who was a central figure of the *women's movement* in nursing? 3) This barrier would be *fragmented power and influence* in professional nursing 4) This barrier would be tension between *medicine and nursing*By *sharing with*, *supporting*, *assissting* and *counseling* other nurses/nursing studentsHow do professional nurses demonstrate collegiality?1) Sharing knowledge with colleagues and students 2) Taking part in professional organizations 3) Mentor less experienced nursesWhat are 3 examples of collegial behaviors?Study thisMiller's Wheel of Professionalism1) Standards and ethics 2) Learning and changingCritical Thinking in Nursing: 1) Critical thinking in nursing is formed by the _____ and _____ of the *profession* 2) Reflective thinking is an active process which is valuable in ____ and ______ behaviors, perspectives and practices1) Novice 2) Expert 3) Novice 4) NoviceSay whether the following falls under novice/expert thinking: 1) This organizes knowledge as *separate facts*; lack knowledge gaining from actually doing 2) This stores knowledge in *highly organized* and structured manner 3) Rely heavily on *resources* 4) Need and follow *clear-cut rules*1) Expert 2) Expert 3) NoviceSay whether the following falls under novice/expert thinking: 1) Asses and consider different options for intervening *before acting* 2) Are aware of resources and how to use them 3) Focus on actions and may not fully asses before acting1) Creativity 2) "Art of nursing" (creativity); systems theory and the scientific method 3) Systematically; pertinent informationNursing Process: 1) What is the "art of nursing"? 2) Nursing process combines the ______ with _______ to produce *high level care* that is interpersonal and interactive 3) The nursing process is a framework that enables the student/nurse to think ______ and process _______ about the patientSelection of nursing interventions to achieve outcomes for which the nurse has accountabilityWhat does a nursing diagnosis provide the basis for?Standardize the language of careThe development of nursing diagnoses was an effort to __________ of care by nurses1) To facilitate the use of *standardized* nursing diagnostics terminology 2) To improve the health care of all people 3) When their usefulness if *limited/outdated* (Ex: disturbed thought process)North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA): 1) What was their mission? 2) What was their goal? 3) When are diagnoses retired?1) Assessment 2) Analysis/identification of the problem (Diagnosis) 3) Planning 4) Implementation of planned interventions 5) EvaluationWhat are the 5 steps of the *nursing process*? (ADPIE)1) Assessment 2) Diagnosis 3) Planning 4) Implementation 5) EvaluationSteps of the Nursing Process: 1) Gathering information/data about the individual, family, or community 2) Analysis and identification of the problem using data clustering 3) Bloom's taxonomy and domains of learning 4) Occurs when nursing orders are *actually carried out* 5) When the nurse examines the patient's progress in relation to the *goals and outcome* to determine is a *problem is resolved*1) Assessment 2) Disease process 3) By depending on an *accurate diagnosis* 4) EvaluationSteps of the Nursing Process: 1) Physical examination, interview, taking subjective and objective data would be under which step? 2) The nursing diagnosis identifies the problems the patient is experiencing as a result of the _________ 3) How do we provide effective interventions in diagnosing? 4) Under which step of the nursing process does *documentation* occur?1) False- it does *not* have universal support 2) Prioritize it by *relative danger to patient* 3) False- they shouldPhase 2 of the Nursing Process: Diagnosis: 1) (True/False) The use of nursing diagnosis is used among various institutions and has universal support 2) After a diagnosis is identified, what must you do next? 3) (True/False) Nurses should not involve patients in identifying priority diagnoses1) PES (P-problem, E- etiology, and S- signs and symptoms) 2) -Nurses themselves as effective diagnosticians -How nurses are educated about nursing diagnoses -Complexity of a patient's situation -Degree to which a hospital's policy/environment supports nursing diagnosisPhase 2 of the Nursing Process: Diagnosis: 1) What are the three parts of *writing nursing diagnosis*? 2) What four domains of factors affect nurses' accurate documentation of diagnoses?1) Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains 2) They are *statements of what is to be accomplished* and are *derived from the diagnosis* 3) Plan of care; selecting interventionsPhase 3 of the Nursing Process: Planning: 1) What are the three domains of learning under planning (bloom's taxonomy)? 2) What are goals/objectives and where are they derived from? 3) This phase includes writing the _________ and selecting _______1) Cognitive 2) Psychomotor domain 3) Affective domainPhase 3 of the Nursing Process: Planning: 1) This domain of learning involves knowledge and intellectual skills 2) This domain involves physical movement and complex activities in the motor-skill arena 3) Involves the *emotions*, such as feelings, values and attitudes1) Outcome critera 2) Cultural congruent intervention 3) ProtocolsPhase 3 of the Nursing Process: Planning: 1) This defines the terms under which the goal is said to be met 2) Developed within the broad social, cultural and demographic context of the patient's life 3) What defines under what conditions a nurse is allowed to treat the patient as well as what treatments are permissible?1) Nurses are continuously moving from one phase to another and then beginning the process again 2) Often a nurse performs two or more phases at the same timeHow is the nursing process *dynamic*? (2 ways)1) Informed opinions 2) Informed decisions 3) Empirical knowledge/experience*Clinical judgment* in nursing consists of ___1___ and ___2__ based on empirical ____3____1) Knowing the limitations of your expertise 2) Empirical knowledge and experienceClinical Judgement in Nursing: 1) What is an important aspect of clinical judgement? 2) Clinical judgment consists of informed opinions/decisions based on what?1) Diploma programs 2) When nurses have a bachelor's degree 3) Associate's degree of nursingEducational Paths to Become a Registered Nurse: 1) What was the *earliest* form of nursing education in the US? 2) When is nursing qualified as a *recognized profession*? 3) Which pathway of being a nurse is accessible via community collages, low tuition, and has *shorter duration* of programs?1) Person 2) Environment 3) HealthWhat are the three foundations of nursing?1) The person 2) The environment 3) HealthFoundations of Nursing: 1) This is motivated by needs, seeks homeostasis and is influenced by genetics and the environment 2) This affects our well being, is physical (air, water) and nonphysical (family, culture) 3) This is dynamic, holistic, and is affected by *health beliefs/behaviors*1) Physiological needs 2) Safety needs 3) Social needs 4) Esteem Needs 5) Self-actualizationWhat are the 5 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?1) Physiological needs 2) Safety needs 3) Social needs 4) Esteem needs 5) Self-actualizationMaslow's Hierarchy of Needs: 1) These are our *most basic needs* 2) These are our physical and psychological needs for *safety and security* 3) This is our need of being *loved and belonged* 4) This is our need of *self-worth, respect and reliance* 5) This is our *max potential*, and is our peak experiences of using talents and skills1) Input/raw material 2) Thought output/processes 3) Output/product 4) Evaluation 5) FeedbackWhat are the 5 components of the *Systems to Nursing*?1) Output/product 2) Evaluation 3) Thought output/processes 4) EvaluationComponents of the *Systems to Nursing*: 1) This component includes *graduates* and is the *end result* 2) This involves the *mean* measuring the success 3) These are *learning experiences* 4) Which component would the *NCLEX* fall under?1) Feedback 2) Input/raw material 3) EvaluationComponents of the *Systems to Nursing*: 1) This is the *final* component and includes *first time pass rate* 2) This includes nursing students and faculty 3) This measures your successPartially satisfiedOne assumption for Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is that basic needs must be at least ______ before higher order needs can become *relevant* to the individual1) Person 2) Environment 3) HealthFoundations of Nursing: 1) This is each individual woman, man and child 2) This includes circumstances, influences and conditions that surround and affect individuals/families/groups 3) A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease/infirmity1) Homeostasis 2) Human needs 3) SynergyImplication of Systems to Nursing: 1) This is *internal stability* 2) This is something that is REQUIRED for *human well being* 3) These are *subsystems working together*1) Family 2) Cultural 3) Social 4) Community, Nation, WorldWhat are the 4 environmental systems under the *environment* foundation of nursing?1) Family 2) Ethnocentrism 3) Cultural SystemEnvironmental Systems (Foundation of Nursing): 1) The most direct environmental influence on a person is _______ 2) Making judgments (usually negative) about another culture 3) This is an increased number of *diverse groups*Community, Nation and World SystemEnvironmental Systems (Foundation of Nursing): Which environmental system has the most impact for *nurses and hospitals*?1) Health belief; health behaviors 2) Bandura; self-efficacyHealth Foundation of Nursing: 1) Health is affected by health ______ and health ______ 2) Which psychologist assisted in health related behaviors and what did he say led to *behavior change*?1) False 2) False- it is often *slow* 3) TrueNurses and Health Belief Models (True/False): 1) Knowledge always helps 2) Change is often quick and rapid 3) Health impacts the entire person and is constantly changing1) Person, environment and health 2) Interrelated 3) YesHolism: 1) Nursing integrates concepts from the ______, _____ and ______ 2) The holistic view of health focuses on _______ of all the parts that *make up a person* 3) Does nursing embrace holistic health?1) Values 2) Belief 3) PhilosphyWhat are the three parts of holism?1) Values 2) Beliefs 3) PhilosophyHolism: 1) These are freely chosen *principles, ideals or standards* held by an individual, class, or group that gives *meaning and direction of life* 2) Represents the *intellectual acceptance* of something as true or correct 3) The study of the principles underlying *conduct, thought and the nature* of the universe1) Preparation 2) CommittmentTwo major differences between profession and occupation are:MiscommunicationMost of medical errors can be contributed to _________ (up to 80%)Interpersonal skillsWhat promotes communication in professional nursing?1) Therapeutic use of self 2) - Orientation - Working phase - Termination phase 3) With *practice*Communication in Nursing: 1) This is the *nurse-patient* relationship 2) What three things fall under our therapeutic use of self? 3) How do we develop our therapeutic use of self?1) Orientation phase 2) Working phase 3) Termination phaseTherapeutic Use of Self: 1) This is the *introductory* phase and getting to know the other person (*needs TRUST*) 2) This is when we *address TASKS* outlined in previous phases 3) These are activities that allow patient and nurse *to end the relationship* in a therapeutic manner1) Self-awareness 2) Reflective practice 3) Non-judgmental acceptanceKey Elements in Communication and Collaboration: 1) When you recognize your *own emotions, prejudices and biases* 2) When you take time to reflect on your *own thoughts, feelings, action and beliefs* 3) Means that nurses acknowledge all patient's *rights to be who they are* and do not disapprove1) Caring 2) Self-awarenessKey Elements in Communication and Collaboration: 1) In *patient centered care*, what is key? 2) What is basic to effective interpersonal relationships?1) Verbal communication 2) Nonverbal communication 3) CongruenceCommunication Theory: 1) Consists of *all speech* and represents the most *obvious* aspect of communication 2) Consists of *clothing, gestures, posture, facial expressions, eye contact, etc.* 3) When verb and nonverbal communication *does not match*1) Interpersonal 2) InteractiveThe nursing process produces *high level care* for your patients that is both ____1___ and ___2___1) Sender 2) Message 3) Receiver 4) Feedback 5) ContextElements of the communication process: 1) This is the person *sending the message* 2) This is wait is *said plus nonverbal message* 3) This is the person *acquiring the message* 4) This is a *response* to the message 5) This is the *setting* in which an interaction occurs1) Feedback 2) Appropriateness 3) Efficiency 4) FlexibilityWhat are the 4 major criteria for *successful communication*?1) Feedback 2) Appropriateness 3) Efficiency 4) FlexibilityCriteria for Successful Communication: 1) When a receiver *relays to a sender* the effect of the sender's message 2) Refers to the correct *fit of a reply*, and the size of the reply (not too lengthy or brief) 3) Means using *simple, clear words* that are timed at a suitable pace 4) Bases messages on the *immediate situation* rather than preconceived expectationsIndividualizedOperations in the *communication process* are _______ and impacted by gender, age, culture, interest, mood, etc.1) Perception 2) Evaluation 3) TransmissionOperations in the Communication Process: 1) The selection, organization and interpretation of *incoming signal into meaningful messages* 2) The analysis of *received information* 3) The *expression of information*, verbal or non verbal1) Goldmark Report 2) -Lysaught report - 1985 Resolution Position Paper - The NLN Position PaperDevelopment of Nursing Education in the US: 1) Early studies of the quality of nursing education includes the ________, which recommended *separation* of education from hospital services 2) What are three reports and papers of early studies on nursing education1) Of education from hospital service 2) Lysaught report 3) 1985 Resolution Position PaperDevelopment of Nursing Education in the US: 1) The goldmark report recommended a *separation* of ________ from ________ (wanted to bring nursing into a *university setting* 2) This said that *role clarification* was needed for health care professionals 3) This said that *professional* nurses should be prepared at baccalaureate level and *technical* nurses prepared at associate degree level1) NLN Position Paper 2) Lysaught Report 3) NLN Position PaperDevelopment of Nursing Education in the US: 1) This paper called for baccalaureate education preparation for professional nursing status 2) This report said *increased research* in practice is needed and so is education for *role clarification* of health professionals 3) Outlined the scope and preparation for nursing role1) VN (Vocational nurse) 2) RN (Registered nurse) 3) APRN (Advance practiced registered Nurse) 4) Non-APRN (masters, doctorate)What are the four categories that you can be as a nurse?1) Licensed practical nurse (LPN) and licensed vocational nurse (LVN) 2) They get a LPN/LVN license and they must *pass the Practical nurse NCLEX* 3) They get an RN license and must past the RN NCLEX 4) Nurse anesthetist, nurse midwife, nurse practionier, clinical nurse specialistWhat is a Nurse: 1) *Vocational nurses* can be either ________ or ________ 2) Do vocational nurses need to pass the nclex? What type of license do they get? 3) Registered nurses get what type of license and are they required to pass the NCLEX? 4) Advanced practice registered nurses can be what of four things?1) APRN license 2) Specialty certification examWhat is a Nurse: 1) What type of license do advance practice registered nurses get? 2) What type of exam do APRN's have to take in order to be certified?1) *Direct patient care*, such as feeding, bathing, certain treatments, etc. 2) The physician or RN 3) LPN/LVN license 4) Practical nursesVocational Nurse: 1) What type of responsibilities do they have? (and give some examples) 2) Who are they under the supervision of? 3) Through educational programs, they get a _______ license (PN scope of practice) 4) Vocational nurses are _______ nurses1) Blood transfusions and giving narcotics 2) Practical schools, like the Louisiana State Board of Practical Nurse Examiners 3) 1-1.5 yearsVocational Nurse: 1) What are two things they *cannot* do? 2) What type of *approved school* do vocational nurses graduate from? 3) How many years of education is vocational nursing?1) Degree in nursing, ADN, and BSN 2) RN license 3) Passing the NCLEX, and then graduation from an approved program (LSBN)Registered Nurse: 1) What three scopes of education classifies an _______ scope of practice 2) Through diploma, ADN and BSN, you get what kind of license? 3) Once you get your RN license, what two things come next in order to become a nurse?1) 3 years within a *school of nursing* 2) No- must be a school of nursing in which you take *school of nursing required courses* 3) Planning and giving of direct careRegistered Nurse: Nursing Degree: 1) In a *diploma of nursing*, education is ______ years in what type of institution? 2) Can you get college credit in a school that is *not a school of nursing* for your degree? 3) The responsibilities of those with a nursing degree include _________ in a structured setting (acute, longterm and ambulatory settings)1) 2 years within a *junior college* and *school of nursing college* (credits apply toward BSN) 2) "Technical Nurse" 3) *Provider and manager* of care: acute care, long-term care, home health care and community settingsRegistered Nurse: Associates Degree: 1) Education for ADN includes ________ within what two institutions? 2) What is another name for a nurse with an associated degree? 3) What comprises of the responsibilities of ADNs?Nursing DegreeWhich nursing education was the basic preparation for the "professional" nurse based on the "nightingale model" and was the *primary source of graduates until the 1960s*?1) Healthcare system 2) Licensure exam (NCLEX) 3) Technical; professionalRegistered Nurse: Associates Degree: 1) They comprise of the majority of nurses in a ________ system 2) Today, the AD and BSN take the same ________ exam in order to become an "RN" 3) The original idea was to designate the *AD* nurse as ______ and the "BN" nurse as _______- yet this was never supported by the nursing profession1) 4 years within a *university* and *school of nursing* 2) Yes 3) All nursing function and supervision of careRegistered Nurse: Baccalaureate Degree: 1) Education for this is ______ years within what two institutions? 2) Can other program credits apply towards BSN? 3) Responsibilities include _______ and _____ within a variety of environments1) Moving up 2) Loss of creditArticulation programs in nursing education include ____1____ from your current profession- it allows for *direct movement* from a program at one level to another without _____2___1) ADN or BSN 2) BSN or Masters 3) - These programs are difficult to *develop* -A change in one curriculum requires a change *in all* - Often mandated by states for public institutionsArticulation programs: 1) LPN can move up to either _____ or _____ 2) RN can move up to either _____ or _____ 3) What are the three issues we see within articulation programs?1) Basic nursing education in baccalaureate programs 2) Traditional BSN programRN --> BSN: 1) Baccalaureate programs for RN's are most often offered by universities that also offer __________ 2) To move from RN to BSN, students may be integrated in the ________ or be enrolled in a separate or partially separate program1) Associate, baccalaureate, or master programs 2) The nursing degree awarded 3) Length of the programPrograms for 2nd Degree Students: 1) People who have a college degree may apply to _____, ______, or _______ programs for an accelerated program leading to a nursing degree 2) What do the responsibilities of this depend on? 3) The issue with these programs is if the __________ is sufficient enough for these students to be socialized into the nursing role1) A *BSN* degree for an accredited program 2) Completion of the *GRE* 3) Minimum of *3.0 undergraduate GPA* 4) Recent work experience as an *RN* related to the desired area of specializationWhat are the 4 requirements for entrance into a master's education?1) True 2) False- it is ADN 3) FalseNursing Education (True/False): 1) In order to get a master's education, you must have a BSN degree 2) BSN's comprise of the majority of nurses in a healthcare system 3) You can get college credit for school of nursing courses for a nursing diploma1) -Graduate degree (core content) -Pass certification exam -APRN license 2) Certified nurse specialist 3) Nurse practitionerAdvance Practice Registered Nurse: 1) All 4 of the advanced practice require what *3 things*? 2) This APRN works in *specialized areas of nurses* 3) This APRN works in *medical managment of chronic illness*, health promotion and health screening1) CRNA 2) CNMAdvance Practice Registered Nurse: 1) This APRN does pre and post op assessments, administer and monitor anesthesia, and evaluates post op of patients 2) This works with pre and post natal care, delivers babies for women with uncomplicated pregnancies1) Lack of *consistency and clarity in the titles* used to regulate advanced practice nursing at the *state level* 2) Hurt's nurses *ability to move and practice* in different states 3) The regulation of nursing practice is still determined by *states nurse practice acts* and associated with rules and regulationsWhat are the 3 issues with advanced practice registered nursing?1) Clinical nurse leader 2) Nurse educator 3) Masters in *specialty content*What three areas can you go into for nursing with a *Master's degree* (non-APRN)1) Clinical Nurse Leader 2) They work in *nursing administration* and *public health* 3) Nurse educatorMaster's Degree in Nursing: 1) This is an "advanced generalist" and emphasizes on health promotion, risk reduction, population based health 2) What two things do masters in *specialty content* do? 3) Evaluates education needs, makes programs of learning, and evaluates learningFalse- they are non-APRN(True/False) Master's degrees in nursing and doctoral degrees coincide with advanced practice registered nurses1) "Practice doctorate" 2) APRN 3) Advanced practice nursing educationDoctor Degree Clinical in Nursing: 1) What is another name for this nursing education? 2) The functions of doctorate degrees in nursing are the same as ______ with emphasis on *leadership, autonomy and research/evidence based practice* 3) The intent of doctorate degrees is to put _______ on a comparable basis with other health professionals1) Doctor of nursing/doctor of science in Nursing (DNS, DSN) 2) Doctor of philosphy in Nursing (PhD)What are the two doctoral degrees you can get in *research*?1) Conduct 2) Clinical problemsDoctoral Degree *Research*: 1) Doctor of Nursing prepares the graduate to ________ research that focuses on *patient care issues* 2) Doctor of Philosophy of nursing prepares the graduate to conduct basic research which may or may not directly relate to _________1) Licensure 2) Accreditation 3) Certification 4) EducationImportant Nursing Education Terms: 1) How a member of a profession is granted the *ability to practice* 2) Process of evaluating schools of nursing *and their programs* 3) A *one time test* that certifies you in a particular area 4) A program granting a *diploma/degree*1) NPA (Nursing Practice Act) 2) 1 year; certification exam 3) Certification 4) Certification and AccreditationImportant Nursing Education Terms: 1) Which act defines nursing and APN *requirements for licensure* 2) For certification, you must first spend _____ year(s) in the field and then take a _______, which says you are an *expert* in that area 3) In most states, one component of advanced-practice licensure is _______ (but they are *separate processes* 4) Education in nursing is intertwined with ______ and _______1) False- they are *separate processes* 2) True 3) False- certification and accreditationImportant Nursing Education Terms (True/False): 1) Licensure and certification are different, but they have the same process 2) Educational programs grant a diploma/degree 3) Education is intertwined with licensure and certification1) Role 2) Role Conflict 3) Role ambiguity 4) Role commitmentRole Socialization: 1) A set of attitudes and behavioral expectations imposed by members of the role 2) Occurs when a person's role expectations conflict with the *value system* 3) Occurs when a person's role is *unclear* or there are *conflicting expectations* 4) The *end point* of role socialization1) Internalizes role expectations; value of the role 2) Role conflictRole Socialization: 1) At the end point of role socialization, the individual ________ role expectations and *no longer questions* the _______ of the role 2) What part of the role socialization would the following scenario be: Can't give blood transfusion to a Jehovah's witnessKnow the order and studyMaslow's Hierarchy1) Legally defined 2) Professionally defined 3) Socially definedProfession of Nursing: 1) The *top* at the profession of nursing is that it is ________ (Nurse practice act) 2) The *middle* is that nursing is __________ (standards and codes) 3) The *bottom* is that nursing is _______ defined (Public health)1) Nurse Practice act 2) Standards and codes 3) Public HealthProfession of Nursing: 1) At the top, nursing is *legally defined*, which is the _______ 2) At the middle, nursing is *professionally* defined, and includes _________ 3) At the bottom nursing is *socially defined* and includes __________1) Roles 2) ValuesIn order to be *socialized* into the profession of nursing, you need to commit to the ____1__ and ___2__ that are *foundation* to nursing1) -Promote health -Prevent illness -Restore health -Facilitate coping 2) -Cognitive -Technical -Interpersonal -Ethical/legalRole Socialization in Nursing: 1) What are the 4 *aims* of nursing? 2) What are the 4 *competencies* of nursing?1) Knowledge 2) Skills 3) Sense of identity 4) Role commitmentFor *professional socialization*, you want to acquire the ___1___, ___2___, and ___3____ that are the characteristics of a profession in order to reach the goal, which is ____4___Role commitmentWhat is the goal of socialization?1) Thinks 2) Behaves 3) ValuesProfessional socialization means that a person __1__, __2__, and has the ___3__ of the *respective profession*1) Lectures, assignments, labs, papers 2) Unplanned observation (like watching child birth) 3) Faculty (school), senior nurses (work), and peers 4) EarlyProfessional Socialization: 1) What type of formal experiences are found in socialization? 2) What type of informal experiences are found in socialization? 3) What are the 3 *agents of socialization*? 4) When should socialization be included in the curriculum?EducationHelen Cohen came up with the developmental model of socialization through __________1) Unilateral dependence 2) Negative/independence 3) Dependence/mutuality 4) InterdependenceDevelopmental Model of Socialization through Education: What are the 4 stages?1) Unilateral dependence 2) Negative/independence 3) Dependence/mutualityDevelopmental Model of Socialization through Education: 1) This stage is when you are reliant on *external authority* and searching for one right answer; limited questioning/critical analysis 2) This stage is *cognitive rebellion* and less reliance on authority, relying more on *one's own judgment* (cocky) 3) This stage is reasoned appraisal and begins the integration of *facts and opinions*1) Interdependence 2) Dependence/mutualityDevelopmental Model of Socialization through Education: 1) This stage is when you use collaborative decision making and commitment to a professional role 2) This stage is when you begin to apply knowledge to practice and are actively engaged in learning1) Interdependence 2) Dependence/mutuality 3) Dependence/mutuality 4) Unilateral dependenceDevelopmental Model of Socialization through Education: 1) Includes having a *professional identity* 2) You are still independent, but realize you still need help 3) This is the beginning of integrating facts and opinions into practice 4) This is limited questioning and critical analysis1) Stage 1: novice 2) Stage 2: advanced beginner 3) Stage 3: competent 4) Stage 4: Proficient 5) Stage 5: ExpertWhat are the 5 stages of Patricia Benner's *Basic Student Socialization* Model?1) Novice 2) Advanced Beginner 3) Competent 4) NovicePatricia Benner's *Basic Student Socialization* Model: 1) This is when they have limited background and skills and need *close supervision* 2) Marginally competent, uses *theory and principles* to make decisions; task-oriented 3) Coordinates *several tasks at once*, plans and sets goals, uses *analytic reasoning* 4) What would a Soph I be?1) Proficient 2) Expert 3) Advanced beginner 4) SeniorPatricia Benner's *Basic Student Socialization* Model: 1) Views patient *holistically*, recognizes subtle changes, sets priorities with ease 2) Grasps patient need *automatically*, uses independent judgement, decision come *naturally and quickly* 3) What would a soph II be? 4) What would a senior in nursing school be?1) Powerlessness and ineffectiveness 2) Absence of *positive reinforcement*From Student to Employed Nurse: 1) *Reality Shock* are feelings of _______ and ________ experienced by new graduates 2) What is the main cause of *reality shock*?