CCRN Review - Renal
Terms in this set (37)
___-renal failure is caused by conditions that decrease blood supply to the kidneys (e.g. HF, hypovolemia, dehydration, shock)?
___-renal failure has a urinary sodium level of < 20, increased specific gravity and BUN:Creatinine ratio of 20:1?
Type of renal failure caused by intrinsic damage to the kidneys?
Renal failure has a BUN:Creatinine ratio of __:__ and a urinary sodium > ___?
Two most common causes of intrinsic renal failure (acute) are?
ATN and parenchymal disease (glomerulonephritis, SLE)
___ results from ischemia (BP 60 or less for 40 minutes or more) and nephrotoxicity?
Two complications of acute renal failure?
anemias and coagulopathies
Why does a patient develop anemia with ARF?
Kidneys produce erythropoietin which stimulates bone marrow production of RBCs
Why does a patient develop coagulopathies with ARF?
low calcium levels are the result of the kidneys inability to convert vitamin D to a usable form
One kilogram = ___cc of fluid?
Treatment of hyperkalemia?
Sodium bicarbonate, Calcium chloride, Glucose and insulin, Kayexalate
Peritoneal dialysate is ____% glucose solution?
4.25% - observe for hypovolemia or hyperglycemia in diabetic patient. This solution pulls off alot of fluid!
Part of the nephron that concentrates and dilutes urine? Lasix works here.
Loop of Henle
What is a side effect of giving Lasix too fast?
Part of the nephron that reabsorbs sodium, glucose, phosphate and amino acids?
Part of the nephron that is the site of ADH control?
What is the expected renal response to acidosis?
Bicarbonate is reabsorbed at proximal tubules, increased production of ammonia to accommodate hydrogen ion loss and increased hydrogen ion secretion at distal tubules
Hyponatremia can lead to?
Seizures, alteration in LOC, irritability, muscle twitching
Normal serum osmolality?
Serum osmolality < 275 means?
Serum osmolaity > 295 means?
A UOP < 400cc in 24 hrs = ?
Hyperphosphotemia from decreased GFR/renal failure = ?
Signs of hyperphosphatemia?
Cramps, tetany, stridor, Trousseau/Chvosteks sign, bronchospasm, seizures, porlonged QT interval (all same as hypocalcemia)
___ causes a deposition of calcium in tissue --> decreased calcium levels?
Normal phosphate level?
___ may result from increase cellular uptake of phosphate during hyperalimentation, increase glucose administration (TPN) or decrease in phosphate intake due to alcholism?
___ = reciprocal of hypercalcemia?
Signs and symptoms of hypophosphatemia?
Weakness, apathy, and mental confusion
Signs and symptoms of hyperphosphatemia?
Chvosteks, Trousseau and seizures are seen with hyperphosphatemia/hypocalcemia
Avoid hyperventilation in patients with decreased calcium levels. Why?
A low CO2 decreases calcium levels further
When would you call the MD after renal transplant?
Fever, pain/tenderness to flank area or decrease in UOP
In ARF (pre-renal stage) - restore plasma volume and BP through colloids or diuretics as they ___ renal blood flow?
Check glucose levels with diabetics on?
Best indicator of renal function?
___ cause aldosterone release, to reabsorb more sodium and excrete potassium?
___ causes a prolonged PR, wide QRS, peaked T wave?