cog neuroscience ~more accurate~

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Term coined by Willis
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Terms in this set (36)
- understanding personality through the contours on your head
- influenced by Willis' idea
- localization of functions in specific cortical regions
- **frequently used functions would result in an increase in size in the brain region controlling that function(phrenology)
- bumps on the skull indicated increases in underlying brain regions
10-20 Electrode placement system- international standard - standardizes the names of the electrodes and the sites from which they record so there is consistency in recordingN1- negative wave - elicited by unpredictable stimuli - indexes preattentive processes - not observed when subjects control delivery of stimuliP2- positive wave - processing something with cognition - most prominent over frontal region of scalp - elicited by wide range of stimuli - indexes higher-order cognition related to perceptual processes, but exact cognitive processes are unknownN2- negative wave - more cognition than P2 - elicited by novel stimuli or stimuli involving conflicting responses - prominent over frontal region - indexes novelty detection processes, cognitive control processes, and error monitoring - connected to IQ and emotional regulationP3- positive wave - elicited by unexpected stimuli or novel stimuli - prominent over parietal lobe - may reflect neuroelectric inhibitory process - indexes stimulus categorization and memory updating processesP3Aindexes attentional orienting (early in the process)P3Bclassic P3 component; indexes the detection of improbable stimuliN4- Elicited by stimuli perceived as meaningful - Prominent over the parietal and central electrode sites - Indexes cognitive processes associated with representing info memory (semantic processing)P6- Elicited by linguistic stimuli that violate syntactic structure - Max over posterior electrode sites - Indexes syntactic processingPositron-emission tomography: (PET)- Neuroimaging technique reliant on blood flow changes in the brain - Helps determine the areas of the brain that are active during performance of different tasks - Areas of the brain that are more active will receive greater blood flow - Path of blood flow through the brain is tracked by injecting a short-lived radioactive isotope of oxygen - Has a high spatial resolution - More useful at indicating where activity occurs in the brain, but not when - ** shows the brain in actionFunctional magnetic resonance imaging: (fMRI)- Used to assess blood flow changes in the brain through magnetic resonance technology - Magnetic property changes that occur in the blood occurs during brain activity - Can show the brain at working in high resolution - Can show the brain processing something in an ongoing wayBOLD Contrast- Primary technique in fMRI - operates on the principal that neurons require oxygen in the blood for energy = neurons that are more active will require a greater amount of oxygen than those that are less active - Blood low in oxygen is less magnetic than blood that is high in oxygen**Functional divisions of the cortex (motor)1. primary motor cortex - contains Betz' cells (largest neurons in cerebral cortex) 2. Premotor cortex - functions in preparing body's muscles for movements 3. Supplementary motor cortex - functions in stabilizing posture, coordination of bimanual movements, and control of sequence of movementsgray mattercell bodieswhite matteraxonsDiffusion tensor imaging: (DTI)- Adaption of MRI - Measures the density and motion of water contained in axons - Axons are responsible for conducting neural signals among neurons - Focused on white matter tracts and their distribution throughout the brain - Provides info on anatomical connectivity b/ween regions - Used to asses structural changes in brain associated w. brain damage and normal aging - Used to specify brain regions correlated with reaction speed in decision taskTranscranial magnetic stimulation: (TMS)- Magnetic field is passed through the scalp to briefly disrupt activity in a specifically targeted brain area - Magnetic field can be focused on spherical area of approx 1 cm - Used to induce virtual lesions that temporarily disrupt normal brain activity in selected region of cortex - Doesn't need patients to be placed in an enclosed environment - Enables stimulation of neuropsychological impairments in order to assess the contributions of specific areas to performance in a cognitive task - Safe and noninvasive - Localization is demonstrated by beaming it to an exact place in the brainMisinterpretations of fMRI images1. The colored patches in the brain images show where there is an increase in the activity of brain cells or neurons (wrong) - Instead they are the only indirect measure of brain activity - PET and fMRI reflects changes in bloody supply 2. The images show that all the areas in which there was activation during the experiment (wrong) - Images result from a comparison b/ween experimental & control conditionsIssues addressed by neuroimaging1. How to account for human capacities - people differ in their intelligence 2. Human limitations - Multitasking can lead to inefficient performance, but it's not enough to say that it's a limit to our capacity 3. Providing an explanation for the psychological effects of disorders of the nervous system - Amputees still feel sensationsMethods of Cognitive Neuroscience1. Measuring autonomic activity 2. Recording brain electrical activity 3. Neuroimaging techniques 4. Studying the damaged brain 5. Perturbing brainERN- Negative deflection in brain wave amplitude occurring 50-100ms subsequent to a person making an error (regardless of whether the person was conscious of the error)ERNs in anxiety disorders: (OCD)- High ERN in strong OCD - People with OCD try to stop some kind of error from happening - Highly sensitive to error - Strong OCD has a negative PESomatosensory cortex- Integrates sensory info received from the outside world, sensory info from within the body, and info from memory - Contains topographic correspondence between specific cortical regions and body surface with respect to somatosensory processesMagnetoencephalography: (MEG)- Detects minute magnetic signals associated w. the electrical activity of neurons - Measures magnetic field created by electric activity of neuron - Can track the order of neural events as activity progresses throughout the cortex - Helps show interplay of communications - Records timing and location of brain activityTypes of brain damage & effects of1. Open head injury: brain damage due to an object that penetrates the skull such as a bullet - Penetrating object can directly damage brain tissue and also generate mechanical forces 2. Closed head injury: strokes, internal - Additional damage to trauma - Disrupted blood flow due to severed blood vessels - Buildup of intracranial pressure due to bleeding - Increased seizure riskCauses of neurological dysfunction1. Vascular disorders - brain damage due to disruption of blood flow to the brain (stroke) - Caused by occlusion of blood flow by a foreign substance such as when an embolus enters a cranial artery - Stroke: brain damage due to occlusions of middle cerebral artery 2. Traumatic Brain Injury: (TBI) - Brain damage due to head injury