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Exam 2: Female Reproductive Physiology, Pregnancy & Genetics, & Exercise Science
Terms in this set (132)
What is the specific function of estrogen on the female reproductive system?
-It increases cilia formation and activity in the oviduct
-It increases contractility of smooth muscle in the oviduct
-enhances endometrium proliferation and myometrium growth
-enhances epithelial proliferation and glycogen deposition in the vagina
-increases growth and branching of the mammary duct system during pregnancy
What is the specific function of progesterone on the female reproductive system?
-increases secretions from the oviduct lining and decreases oviduct contractility
-increases differentiation of cells in the uterus lining and decreases contractility of the uterus
-increases growth and branching of the mammary duct system during pregnancy
(T/F) During puberty, estrogen can cause the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina to enlarge.
What hormone is responsible for the growth spurt that allows females to grow faster than males between the ages of 12 to 13?
What hormone stimulates closure of the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) in long bones earlier than in males (causing maximum height at around 15-17 years of age)?
(T/F) Males stop growing earlier than females.
(T/F) Estrogen assist with breast development, body fat increases (mostly on the hips and breasts), pelvis widens, pubic hair develops, axillary hair develops, calcium ion uptake is increased, and total blood cholesterol is lowered (while HDLs are increased).
What hormone increases mucous formation in the area of the cervix?
(T/F) During climax (orgasm) muscle tension decreases throughout the body followed by a blood pressure and pulse increase.
What are you looking for with breast self exams?
symmetry, redness, bruising, or swelling in three positions (hands above the head, hands on the hips, and then leaning forward at a 45º angle)
List yearly exams discussed in class.
-Clinical breast exam
-Mammogram (every 2 years after age 40)
Describe premenstrual syndrome
intense premenstrual tension associated with cramping that affects 20-50% of females. Progesterone contributes to breast tenderness
most common hernia type in females. A section of the intestine bulge out.
Fibrocystic breast disease
painful multiple internal breast masses that mostly affect women between 30-50 years of age. They are usually bilateral and pain associated with this disease increases a few days prior to menstruation
removal of the entire breast
removal of the cancerous part (just a lump) of breast tissue
uterine fibroids that are benign tumor masses in the myometrium (3/4ths of the females affected show no symptoms. Symptoms are excessive bleeding during menstruation)
-growth of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus that can scar or partially block the oviducts and cause infertility
-The pain caused by this condition cycles with the menstrual cycle. It is most common between 20-30 years of age. The condition subsides when estrogen stimulation decreases with menopause.
a surgery where a female has short segments of her oviducts tied or burned thus eggs will not be able to pass through them properly
the process of developing three germ layers from a blastula
three-layered embryo stage formed after the blastula
What primary germ layer forms the nervous system, epidermis of the skin, facial bones, cornea, adrenal medulla, tooth enamel, and lens of the eye?
What is neuralation?
the process of the ectoderm turning into the brain and spinal cord
What primary germ layer forms most of the skeletal, muscular, urogenital, and cardiovascular systems, cartilage, blood, and bone marrow?
When do somites form?
(T/F) Somites are segments of mesoderm.
What do sclerotomes create?
the vertebra and ribs
What do dermatomes form?
the dermis of the skin in the dorsal body
What do myotomes form?
most of the skeletal muscle in the body
What primary germ layer forms the epithelium of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract, urethra, bladder, thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus glands?
(T/F) The notochord becomes the spinal column.
rod of dorsal mesoderm cells that further mesoderm will surround to form the vertebrae
What tissue is composed of star-shaped embryonic cells that can migrate to various regions within the developing embryo based on function?
Mesenchyme gives rise to what body tissues later?
nervous, connective, muscle, and epithelial
the process of forming body organs and organ systems which occurs mostly during the first trimester
Why is apoptosis important?
it is important in the generation of spaces between our fingers and toes
What do the umbilical arteries do?
carry partially deoxygenated blood and waste away from the conceptus
What do the umbilical veins do?
carry oxygenated blood and nutrients toward the conceptus
a bypass used by the umbilical vein to go around its fetal liver
a shunt between the right to left atria
remnant of foramen ovale of fetal heart
a bypass between the aortic arch and the pulmonic trunk
remnant of the ductus arteriosus
Describe Chadwick's sign
vagina develops a purplish color due to increased blood flow
some females develop increased pigmentation of their nose and cheeks with pregnancy
hormone released by the placenta that causes the pelvic ligaments to relax and cartilage (pubic symphysis) to widen
What hormone is secreted by the placenta and stimulates mother's breast maturation (working in conjunction with estrogen and progesterone)?
Human placental lactogen (hPL)/Human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS)
What hormone is secreted by the placenta and increases the metabolic rate of the female during pregnancy?
Human chorionic thyrotropin (hCT)
Why does morning sickness occur?
due to altered taste sensation because of increased estrogen and progesterone levels in the blood
(T/F) Pregnant women also often suffer from heartburn and constipation (due to decreased motility during pregnancy).
(T/F) Due to estrogen and progesterone many women have stuffy noses and sometimes nosebleeds.
(T/F) Dyspnea is common near the beginning of the pregnancy.
Changes in cardiovascular system during pregnancy.
blood volume increases 25-40%, blood pressure increases, and pulse rises.
Changes in urinary system during pregnancy.
-urination is more frequent because the fetus is compressing the bladder.
-also the mother is processing some of the waste products of the fetus in her kidneys which can contribute to increased urination.
What helps with LBP for pregnant patients?
Slow steady stretching
Developmental landmarks: 4th- 6th month
-mother will start feeling the fetus move. They also start sucking their thumb.
Developmental landmarks: 4th- 5th month
-you can begin to hear the fetal heartbeat with a stethoscope. (~150 bpm)
Developmental landmarks: 7th month
the fetus can open and close its eyes
What acid prevents neural tube defects?
folic acid (folate)
Excessive consumption of what vitamin can cause birth defects?
What should pregnant patients be aware of regarding tranquilizers and sedatives?
should be taken with caution, because thalidomide (a common tranquilizer) has been shown to deform arms and legs
Significance of anti-acne drugs when pregnant.
should be taken with caution, because they have been linked to cranial and facial deformities of the fetus
Streptomycin can cause what kind of problems?
hearing problems and may damage the nervous system
Smoking while pregnant is associated with...
having an underweight baby, reduced mental performance, and an increased risk of heart defects
Describe the weight gain of a gravid female.
should gain at least 20 to 25 pounds during her pregnancy
the act of giving birth (Optimal human birth time is 38-40 weeks)
What do babies normally weigh at birth?
What is the series of events that lead to expulsion of the baby?
When are estrogen levels at their highest for gravid females?
prior to labor onset and it increases the excitability of uterine smooth muscle tissue
(T/F) Estrogen increases the amount of receptor sites on uterine muscle for oxytocin (which drastically stimulates uterine smooth muscle).
What are Braxton Hicks contractions?
rhythmic contractions of uterine muscle
Where is oxytocin released?
some fetal cells as well as the posterior pituitary gland
(T/F) Oxytocin cause the placenta to secrete prostaglandins.
(T/F) There are oxytocic drugs which mimic the function of oxytocin to induce birth
What hormone released from the placenta contributes to the timing of labor?
What hormone is said to contribute to post-partum depression?
Stage 1 of labor involves...
-Dilation: the cervix should dilate to 10 cm
-Engagement: when the infant's head enters the true pelvis
Stage 2 of labor involves...
the actual childbirth stage due to contractions every two to three minutes. The amnion (layman's term "water") ruptures just before birth.
when the baby's head distends the vulva as it is coming out
when an incision is made to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent jagged tearing
Define breech delivery
baby comes out buttocks first or in some other twisted position.
Stage 3 of labor involves...
When does the placental stage take place?
30 mins. after the baby is born
placenta and fetal membranes that are flushed out of the uterus after giving birth.
Describe Apgar score
a scale used to test out the baby's physical status level for Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiratory effect. The score overall is 0 to 2 points for each category totaling up to 10 points.
(T/F) Once the baby is no longer connected to the placenta its bloodstream undergoes acidosis (related to carbon dioxide accumulation) which stimulates the brainstem and makes the baby breathe.
When does the ovarian cycle resume?
occurs six to eight weeks after delivery in women that don't nurse (Nursing young can delay the ovarian cycle for a few months (termed lactational amenorrhea).
production of milk stimulated by numerous hormone interactions
What hormone is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that creates milk?
What stimulates prolactin?
Placental estrogen, progesterone, and lactogen
(T/F) Prolactin is also normally secreted by both sexes at low baseline levels but dramatically increases during pregnancy and after the birth
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland that controls the milk let-down reflex
What is the yellowish fluid that is secreted from a mother's breast during the first few days of breast feeding which contains many antibodies (e.g. IgA), vitamin A, some minerals, and a lot of protein (e.g. caseins and α-lactalbumin)?
What is meconium?
tar-like green paste of dead G.I. tract endothelial cells, bile, and miscellaneous substances that is the initial feces.
Describe physiological jaundice
a normal yellow discoloration seen in infants during the first few days of life due to RBC breakdown and accumulation of bilirubin in the fetal liver.
Describe placenta previa
placenta forms near the internal os by the cervical canal and as a result it is easy to tear the placenta.
hypertension, proteinuria and other symptoms seen in a pregnant woman which are sometimes of unknown cause
a condition affecting pregnant women where they have proteinuria, pitting edema, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and eventually seizures.
Describe gestational diabetes
temporary diabetes that develops while a female is pregnant.
What are factors that can cause congenital mutations?
List teratogenic factors discussed in class
Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug consumption, and over-consumption of vitamins (particularly vitamin A)
(T/F) It is safer to place babies on their stomachs than on their backs.
What percentage of adults in the US are inactive?
Describe the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
It is a 6-20 scale on how difficult an exercise is. Six represents minimal difficulty, while 20 represents maximal effort.
What is the maximum weight a person can lift during a single repetition of an exercise (e.g., bench press or leg press)?
one-repetition maximum (1-RM)
Describe submax RM
-where they lift as much weight as they can for a few repetitions
-Then their 1-RM is mathematically estimated from what they were able to safely lift. During this test you can take small breaks between sets to recover.
by exercising at a level above what is normal for you, your body will start to adapt to the stress you place it under
Training is specific (e.g., swim training does not perfectly relate to cardio changes for runners). Enhanced lactate threshold of particular muscles trained explains part of this.
within one to two weeks of cessation of training physiologic function and exercise capacity start to decline
this refers to the processes your body undergoes once you stop exercising for long periods of time
What is the interindividual variability principle?
the response to training may vary individual-to-individual (i.e. some professional body builders are known to have one or two muscle groups that are proportionally larger than the rest of their muscles)
What is the principle of diminishing returns?
At a certain level of exercise training their gains in strength or endurance will not be as great as when they first started exercising
Exercise science terminology: Mode
how you exercise (e.g., free weights, machine weights, tennis, etc.)
Exercise science terminology: Frequency
how often you exercise (e.g., three times a week).
Exercise science terminology: Intensity
the degree of difficulty of an exercise (e.g., bench press 280 pounds, or you ride your bike at a high velocity for a race)
Exercise science terminology: Duration
how long you exercise
The first 6-8 weeks of an exercise program is considered what stage?
Initial conditioning stage
How long does the improvement stage last?
Describe the maintenance stage
attempting to maintain a level of fitness without tiring yourself out for your actual sports competition (during season)
How long does it take muscles to recover from strenuous exercise?
(T/F) 50% of the individuals that start an exercise program regularly adhere to it for one year.
Where do pedometers get the most accurate reading?
waistband, shirt pocket or the neck
they measure acceleration minute-to-minute
What does a lower heart rate at a given exercise intensity over time indicate?
improving their capability of engaging in that activity
Global Positioning Systems
you can wear these when you run or bike and determine how far you traveled, your velocity, and any altitude changes you experienced
(T/F) Hunger is suppressed during cardiovascular exercise, and to a lesser degree resistance exercise.
Exercise suppresses what hormone secreted by the enterendocrine cells?
(T/F) Leptin levels decrease after aerobic and resistance exercise, thus making you hungry.
Adipocytes and enterocytes produce what hormone?
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