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49 terms

Sociology Exam 2

Ch 4, 5, 7
STUDY
PLAY
Socialization
process of learning your culture
Socialization process
become: self aware
knowledgeable
skilled in the ways of culture
thinkers
socialization keeps us...
alive, developmentally on target, develop/ignore aptitudes, learn appropriate emotional responses, teaches relevant aspects of culture
Social reproduction
process by whereby societies have structural continuity over time.
importance of socialization
makes social reproduction possible, facilitates relationships across generations, ensures that we internalize key aspects of our culture
cognition
the way in which children learn to think about themselves and the environment.
social self
"me"
Self-consciousness
coming to see one's self as others see them.
generalized other
general values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing
Phases of play (Mead)
Simple Imitation
taking the role of others (being favorite superhero)
Generalized other (team sport)
Jean Piaget
stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor stage
birth-about age 2, infants learn mainly by touching objects, manipulation them, and physically exploring their environment. fascinated with peek-a-boo, object performance not intact
Preoperational stage
2-7, children master language and use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion.
egocentric
interpret world exclusively in terms of own position. happens in preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage
7-11, master abstract logical notions such as causality.
Formal operational stage
11-15, becomes able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas.
Piaget's beliefs of stages:
first three stages are universal, not all adults reach formal operational stage.
"I" is
the unsocialized self. Desires and wants
"Me" is
the socialized self. see ourselves as others do, we have the perspective of the team.
Social awareness
happens when we are able to distinguish the "I" from "me"
Agents of socialization
groups or social contexts in which significant process of socialization occur
Peer group
consists of individuals of a similar age
Age-grades
marked by ceremonies or rites that mark the transition from one age-grade to another.
Mass media
electronic communication -- radio, TV, audio recordings, and videos.
Social roles
socially defined expectations for a person of a given social position
Identity
relates to people's understanding about who they are and what is meaningful to them
Social identity
refer to the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual, markers that indicate who, in a basic sense, that individual is. (student, mother, lawyer, catholic, homeless, etc.)
Self-identity
process of self development through which we formulate a unique sense of our selves and our relationship to the world.
Gender socialization
learning of gender roles trough social factors such as the family and the media
Gender roles
What society expects you to act like as a man (tough) or woman (not tough)
Norms
principles or rules people are expected to observe
Deviance
nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society
Psychopaths
withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake
Sanction
any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm.
Laws
norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow
Crimes
behavior that breaks a law.
Anomie
exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life (Emile Durkheim)
Differential association
criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime. (Edwin H. Sutherland)
Labeling theory
suggests people become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.
Primary deviation
initial act of transgression
Secondary deviation
when individual accepts label and sees himself as deviant.
Conflict theory
Draws on elements of Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberate and often political.
New criminology
analyze crime and deviance in terms of the social structure and the preservation of power among the ruling class.
Control theory
crime results from an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it.
White-collar crime
Crime by affluent people. Tax fraud, antitrust violations, illegal sales practice, etc. (Edwin Sutherland, 1949).
Corporate crime
offenses committed by large corporations
Organized crime
embraces illegal gambling, drug dealing, prostitution, etc.
Cybercrime
internet-based fraud, etc.
Community policing
not only involving citizens but also changing the outlook of police forces.