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Ch 4, 5, 7


process of learning your culture

Socialization process

become: self aware
skilled in the ways of culture

socialization keeps us...

alive, developmentally on target, develop/ignore aptitudes, learn appropriate emotional responses, teaches relevant aspects of culture

Social reproduction

process by whereby societies have structural continuity over time.

importance of socialization

makes social reproduction possible, facilitates relationships across generations, ensures that we internalize key aspects of our culture


the way in which children learn to think about themselves and the environment.

social self



coming to see one's self as others see them.

generalized other

general values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing

Phases of play (Mead)

Simple Imitation
taking the role of others (being favorite superhero)
Generalized other (team sport)

Jean Piaget

stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor stage

birth-about age 2, infants learn mainly by touching objects, manipulation them, and physically exploring their environment. fascinated with peek-a-boo, object performance not intact

Preoperational stage

2-7, children master language and use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion.


interpret world exclusively in terms of own position. happens in preoperational stage

Concrete operational stage

7-11, master abstract logical notions such as causality.

Formal operational stage

11-15, becomes able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas.

Piaget's beliefs of stages:

first three stages are universal, not all adults reach formal operational stage.

"I" is

the unsocialized self. Desires and wants

"Me" is

the socialized self. see ourselves as others do, we have the perspective of the team.

Social awareness

happens when we are able to distinguish the "I" from "me"

Agents of socialization

groups or social contexts in which significant process of socialization occur

Peer group

consists of individuals of a similar age


marked by ceremonies or rites that mark the transition from one age-grade to another.

Mass media

electronic communication -- radio, TV, audio recordings, and videos.

Social roles

socially defined expectations for a person of a given social position


relates to people's understanding about who they are and what is meaningful to them

Social identity

refer to the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual, markers that indicate who, in a basic sense, that individual is. (student, mother, lawyer, catholic, homeless, etc.)


process of self development through which we formulate a unique sense of our selves and our relationship to the world.

Gender socialization

learning of gender roles trough social factors such as the family and the media

Gender roles

What society expects you to act like as a man (tough) or woman (not tough)


principles or rules people are expected to observe


nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society


withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake


any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm.


norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow


behavior that breaks a law.


exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life (Emile Durkheim)

Differential association

criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime. (Edwin H. Sutherland)

Labeling theory

suggests people become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.

Primary deviation

initial act of transgression

Secondary deviation

when individual accepts label and sees himself as deviant.

Conflict theory

Draws on elements of Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberate and often political.

New criminology

analyze crime and deviance in terms of the social structure and the preservation of power among the ruling class.

Control theory

crime results from an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it.

White-collar crime

Crime by affluent people. Tax fraud, antitrust violations, illegal sales practice, etc. (Edwin Sutherland, 1949).

Corporate crime

offenses committed by large corporations

Organized crime

embraces illegal gambling, drug dealing, prostitution, etc.


internet-based fraud, etc.

Community policing

not only involving citizens but also changing the outlook of police forces.

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