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Sociology Exam 2
Ch 4, 5, 7
process of learning your culture
become: self aware
skilled in the ways of culture
socialization keeps us...
alive, developmentally on target, develop/ignore aptitudes, learn appropriate emotional responses, teaches relevant aspects of culture
process by whereby societies have structural continuity over time.
importance of socialization
makes social reproduction possible, facilitates relationships across generations, ensures that we internalize key aspects of our culture
the way in which children learn to think about themselves and the environment.
coming to see one's self as others see them.
general values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing
Phases of play (Mead)
taking the role of others (being favorite superhero)
Generalized other (team sport)
stages of cognitive development
birth-about age 2, infants learn mainly by touching objects, manipulation them, and physically exploring their environment. fascinated with peek-a-boo, object performance not intact
2-7, children master language and use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion.
interpret world exclusively in terms of own position. happens in preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage
7-11, master abstract logical notions such as causality.
Formal operational stage
11-15, becomes able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas.
Piaget's beliefs of stages:
first three stages are universal, not all adults reach formal operational stage.
the unsocialized self. Desires and wants
the socialized self. see ourselves as others do, we have the perspective of the team.
happens when we are able to distinguish the "I" from "me"
Agents of socialization
groups or social contexts in which significant process of socialization occur
consists of individuals of a similar age
marked by ceremonies or rites that mark the transition from one age-grade to another.
electronic communication -- radio, TV, audio recordings, and videos.
socially defined expectations for a person of a given social position
relates to people's understanding about who they are and what is meaningful to them
refer to the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual, markers that indicate who, in a basic sense, that individual is. (student, mother, lawyer, catholic, homeless, etc.)
process of self development through which we formulate a unique sense of our selves and our relationship to the world.
learning of gender roles trough social factors such as the family and the media
What society expects you to act like as a man (tough) or woman (not tough)
principles or rules people are expected to observe
nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society
withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake
any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm.
norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow
behavior that breaks a law.
exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life (Emile Durkheim)
criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime. (Edwin H. Sutherland)
suggests people become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.
initial act of transgression
when individual accepts label and sees himself as deviant.
Draws on elements of Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberate and often political.
analyze crime and deviance in terms of the social structure and the preservation of power among the ruling class.
crime results from an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it.
Crime by affluent people. Tax fraud, antitrust violations, illegal sales practice, etc. (Edwin Sutherland, 1949).
offenses committed by large corporations
embraces illegal gambling, drug dealing, prostitution, etc.
internet-based fraud, etc.
not only involving citizens but also changing the outlook of police forces.