socialization keeps us...
alive, developmentally on target, develop/ignore aptitudes, learn appropriate emotional responses, teaches relevant aspects of culture
importance of socialization
makes social reproduction possible, facilitates relationships across generations, ensures that we internalize key aspects of our culture
Phases of play (Mead)
taking the role of others (being favorite superhero)
Generalized other (team sport)
birth-about age 2, infants learn mainly by touching objects, manipulation them, and physically exploring their environment. fascinated with peek-a-boo, object performance not intact
2-7, children master language and use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion.
Piaget's beliefs of stages:
first three stages are universal, not all adults reach formal operational stage.
Agents of socialization
groups or social contexts in which significant process of socialization occur
refer to the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual, markers that indicate who, in a basic sense, that individual is. (student, mother, lawyer, catholic, homeless, etc.)
process of self development through which we formulate a unique sense of our selves and our relationship to the world.
learning of gender roles trough social factors such as the family and the media
nonconformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society
any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm.
exists when there are no clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social life (Emile Durkheim)
criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime. (Edwin H. Sutherland)
suggests people become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others.
Draws on elements of Marxist thought to argue that deviance is deliberate and often political.
analyze crime and deviance in terms of the social structure and the preservation of power among the ruling class.
crime results from an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and the social or physical controls that deter it.
Crime by affluent people. Tax fraud, antitrust violations, illegal sales practice, etc. (Edwin Sutherland, 1949).