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Psyc 169 - Exam One - Hurtz
Terms in this set (70)
What four people did Landy identify as influential in the development of industrial psychology?
What topics and work activities typically define the "industrial" side of I-O psychology?
Selection, Training, Job Design, Utility
About when did psychology start being applied to business, both in terms of an approximate date range and relative to the development of the field of psychology in general?
World War I
What role do psychological research methods and outcomes play in industrial psychology?
Research is the foundation of making evidence-based recommendations
Four goals of science
description, understanding, prediction, control
To what does the term Description as a goal in science refer?
Define and Seek Patterns
To what does the term Understanding as a goal in science refer?
Looking for Explanations
To what does the term Prediction as a goal in science refer?
Use body of knowledge to forecast events, or
derive predictive hypotheses
To what does the term Control as a goal in science refer?
Use body of knowledge to influence behavior
and performance in the workplace
How does job/work analysis help achieve Description and Understanding?
Description allows us to define, differentiate, record, and relate.
Understanding allows us to discern why some people perform better than others and why some job features impact worker motivation.
How does employee selection relate to Prediction?
Prediction allows us the opportunity to use the data collected to select employees that we predict will be good in their role, based on evidence.
- How do job design, performance appraisal, and employee training help achieve Control?
If we are able to properly design a job that meets the requirements the company needs, put an accurate performance appraisal process in place, and implement an employee training process with measurable outcomes, then we give the company the instruments it needs to maintain control of the environment and the employees that will maintain the work context they require.
What are the "steps in traditional validation" (as outlined in Ch.1 of the book)?
Analyze Jobs and Organizational Needs
Choose a Criterion
Form Predictive Hypotheses
Select Methods of Measurement
What are the limitations of the "steps in traditional validation"?
Limited Number of Cases
Consideration of Prior Research
Need for Judgement
Global or Specific Assessments
What is "job design"?
Refers to factors like:
Division of labor; distribution of tasks
Job complexity vs. simplicity
Individual vs. teamwork
What is "job redesign"?
Job enlargement - increasing variety of tasks
Job enrichment - including more complex tasks and
broadening the range of responsibilities
What are the core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model, which make up the "motivating potential" of a job?
Motivating Potential Score
[(SV + TI + TS)/3] x A x F
What are the psychological states of Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model?
Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work
Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of the Work
Knowledge of the Actual Results of the Work Activities
Growth Need Strength
Knowledge & Skill
Work Context Satisfaction
What are the expected outcomes of Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model?
• High internal work motivation.
• High-quality work performance.
• High satisfaction with the work.
• Low absenteeism and turnover.
What components of "motivational force" does expectancy theory propose, and how do they relate to one another in predicting motivated behavior at work?
Work is multi-faceted: Jobs involve....(name and describe the four facets described in class)
The Job, the Work, the Workers, and the Tools
What are the components of the different levels of work, embedded in context, and the external environment?
What does the "systems" perspective warn us about changing one part of the system?
"The fact is that the system that people work in and the interaction with people may account for 90 or 95 percent* of performance."
What role does job/work analysis play in the various areas of industrial psychology?
Job analysis functions as a criterion construct. It studies what a jobholder does on the job, what must be known in order to do it, what resources are used in doing it, and perhaps the conditions under which it is done.
What processes are typically involved in the Data Gathering phase of work analysis?
Consult general resources e.g., O*NET
Study existing job information
Describe the general process of systematically studying a job; that is, the major steps of the process that is commonly used to prepare for and carry out a work analysis.
Data Processing, Refining, Verifying
What processes are typically involved in the Data Processing phase of work analysis?
Compile and organize task/KSAO information
Write task/KSAO statements
Create and administer questionnaire
Determine task/KSAO criticality
What are some common Applications of job/work analysis results?
Training & Development
What types of Documentation are usually generated from the analysis?
Appendices, Tables, etc.
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics
From scratch vs ready-made methods of work analysis.
Start with research, observations, interviews and
work toward a thorough and detailed description, or use a group of existing measures such as the Personality-Based Job Analysis.
What is ONet and what is it used for?
Detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, researchers, and others.
In industrial psychology, what does the term "criterion" usually refer to?
a type of test or assessment
What was Campbell et al.'s argument for why a "theory of performance" was needed?
We all have a general sense of what performance means, but it's difficult to pin down exactly what it means.
What three factors influence how well an employee carries out any "performance component"?
Procedural Knowledge and Skill
- What additional factor would Deming want to add to the Theory of Performance model?
a system factor
Regarding Borman and Motowidlo's theory of performance - How are task performance and contextual performance distinguished?
The proficiency with which job incumbents perform activities that are formally recognized as part of their jobs vs. activities that do not fall under task performance but are still important for organizational effectiveness.
Regarding Rotundo and Sackett's theory of performance:
- What was their primary addition beyond what Borman and Motowidlo proposed?
According to researchers like Ree and Schmidt & Hunter, what role does g play in predicting job performance?
Not much more than g
What is "g" (vs. factors that might be labeled "s")?
One general factor vs multiple specific factors
What was Sternberg's major criticism of industrial psychology's use of g for predicting job performance?
There are different kinds of intelligence.
Sternberg's quote regarding g and job performance prediction.
The g-Ocentric View of Intelligence and Job Performance is Wrong."
Where does Sternberg view g fitting into his triarchic theory, and what does he think we should be giving more attention to?
The kind of intelligence: creative, practical, or analytical, and how it relates to their view of the inner or external world.
What are Hogan's general factors of physical abilities?
Describe the timeline for how personality tests in employee selection have been viewed.
1965-Guion and Gottier - can't prove it
1984-Schmitt - personality tests have low validity
1991-Barrick & Mount and Tettet al., - meta the Big 5 = C
1997-2000-Salgado (1997) and Hurtz & Donovan (2000) - support 1991 findings.
2004-Schmidt & Hunter acknowledge "C" adds beyond "g"
Which of the "Big 5" personality factors is most universally accepted as having a consistent relation to job performance for most jobs?
In I-O psychology, what are the two most commonly cited components of conscientiousness?
Achievement Orientation + Dependability
What are integrity tests, and how do they generally relate to the Big 5 traits?
Assessments designed to evaluate overt and covert forms of dishonesty, especially relevant to the Dependability sub-trait of conscientiousness.
What parts of Campbell's theory of job performance are most relevant to "g" and "C"?
Job related Knowledge and Skill are connected to Cognitive abilities, while motivation to perform is connected to Conscientiousness & related traits.
What parts of Borman's theory of job performance are most relevant to "g" and "C"?
Job-related Knowledge and Skill are connect to the Core elements and Cognitive abilities. Motivation to perform is influenced by the Context and the Core, related to Conscientiousness.
The Description side of I/O Psych covers what areas?
The Understanding side of I/O Psych covers what areas?
The Prediction side of I/O Psych covers what areas?
The Control side of I/O Psych covers what areas?
Many "O" Topics
In Binning and Barrett's Model, what is the relationship between Predictor Construct and Criterion Construct (Line 1)?
The basic theoretical statement. For example, the way applicants differ from one another is related to their potential performance.
In Binning and Barrett's Model, what is the relationship between Predictor Measure and Criterion Measure (Line 2)?
This is the predictive hypothesis. It is measurable, usually by a correlation coefficient.
In Binning and Barrett's Model, what is the relationship between Predictor Measure and Predictor Construct (Line 3)?
The predictive measure is a valid measure of the idea we wanted to measure.
In Binning and Barrett's Model, what is the relationship between Criterion Measure and Criterion Construct (Line 4)?
The criterion measure tool accurately measures the job performance behavior construct.
In Binning and Barrett's Model, what is the relationship between Predictor Measure and Criterion Construct (Line 5)?
The predictor measure is relative to the job performance behavior construct as is the predictor measure's relation to the criterion measure.
How to measure the idea.
A valid measure of job performance behavior construct.
The idea of what to measure.
Job performance behavior construct.
Basic theoretical statement. The predictive idea will predict job behavior performance construct.
Measurable hypothesis. The predictor measure is related to the criterion measure.
The predictor measure is a valid measure of the predictor construct.
The criterion measure is a valid measure of the job performance behavior construct.
The predictor measure is a valid measure of the job performance behavior construct as it relates to the criterion measure.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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