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social psych quiz 2
Terms in this set (19)
What is a self-concept?
o Our knowledge/understanding of who we are; all the beliefs or thoughts that we have about ourselves
o A schema about yourself that contains all self-knowledge
why are people motivated to learn/draw conclusions about themselves?
o Interest- accurate info to help us understand who we are and what we are capable of
o Enhancement- info to make us feel good about ourselves
What is meant by a "working self-concept"?
Self-knowledge in conscious awareness at a given time·
What are the main places that self-knowledge comes from?
o Introspection, self-perception, other people, autobiographical memories, and culture·
· What can introspection tell us about ourselves? What can it NOT tell us about ourselves?
o If people really knew themselves by introspection, you would expect them to be really good at imagining how events would make them feel
o People consistently show impact bias- they overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions
o People are often unaware of WHY they feel things and WHERE their internal evaluations come from
· What is the main premise of Bem's self-perception theory? How is self-perception different from introspection? How does self-perception relate to the overjustification effect?
o Bem's- when internal states are weak/difficult to interpret, people infer what they think or how they feel by observing their own behavior and the situation in which that behavior takes place
o Overjustification effect- when people are given a reward to perform a task they already enjoy, enjoyment decreases over time
o Different because we don't know how we are, we think about what we did ad then draw conclusions from it
· According to social comparison theory, when do we use information from others to draw conclusions about ourselves? Whom do we compare ourselves to?
o Social comparison theory- we learn about our own abilities, feelings, and beliefs by comparing ourselves to other
o We make social comparisons when:
§ When we are uncertain or don't have any idea about how well we have done
§ When the other person's ability can help us better understand our own
o We compare ourselves to others who are similar in relevant ways
· What is the two-factor theory of emotion? Schacter and Singer's classic study involving the injection of adrenaline?
o Two-factor theory of emotion- 1) experience symptoms of physiological arousal, 2) cognitive interpretation of the arousal (potentially affected by others)
Schacter and Singer's classic study involving the injection of adrenaline?
Schacter and Singer- injected male volunteers with epinephrine (adrenaline), drug uniformed participants reported feeling happy/angry depending on the confederate (actor displaying emotions to see if others would do the same just because they saw him)
· What is meant by the "looking glass self"? When/what kind of people are most likely to use this to influence their self-concept?
o We tend to see ourselves through the eyes of other people and adopt those views
§ Particularly when: motivation to affiliate, lack of firm self-concept (children)
How does memory relate to our self-concept? What types of events are we most likely to remember?
o Our self-concept depends on our memories of our lives
§ But memory is not a recording device, some memories stand out more and affect our self-concept more
§ Recent events, transitional "firsts", "reminiscence bump" (older adults tend to remember disproportionately more from their adolescence and early adult years)·
· What is the difference between a self-concept and a self-construal?
Self-construal- culture can influence a person's entire view of a "self"
self-concept- Our knowledge/understanding of who we are; all the beliefs or thoughts that we have about ourselves
How does an independent self-construal differ from an interdependent self-construal?
o Independent- enjoy being different/unique, value being self-reliant, describe self in personal traits, value personal achievements, and see self as less similar to others
o Interdependent- one's community is a part of oneself, value shared responsibility, describe self as member of groups, value status of valued group, and see self as more similar to others
What is self-esteem?
evaluative aspect of self-concept, the positive or negative overall evaluation you have of yourself
What are the positive and negative consequences of having/seeking self-esteem?
o Positives- correlates with happiness, healthiness, productivity, and success; leads people to feel good, take on new challenges, and persist in the face of failure
o Negatives- efforts to boost self-esteem can:
§ Leave us unaware of our faults, cause us to become anxious, cause us to avoid activities that risk failure, neglect the needs of others, and lead to stress-related health problems
What are the main theories of self-esteem?
Sociometer theory, terror management theory, self-discrepancy theory
self-esteem is driven by a primitive need to connect with others and gain their approval; detects acceptance and rejection
terror management theory
biologically programmed for self-preservation; yet we are aware of our own death. Results in terror and paralyzing deeply rooted fear
self-esteem is a result of the match/mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves
§ types of selves: Actual self, Ideal self, and Ought self
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