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101 terms

EMT National Registry

National Registry Questions
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3 effects of intracranial pressure on vital signs
bradycardia, irregular breathing, hypertension
___ ___ is part of a syndrome called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
chronic bronchitis
___ ___ is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks.
Acute bronchitis
a group of diseases characterized by the pathological limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible.
COPD
A late sign of shock is:
decreased blood pressure
A PASG is contraindicated if the patient presents with cardiogenic shock or _______.
abnormal lung sounds
a policy or protocol issued by a medical director that authorizes EMTs to perform particular skills in certain situations
standing orders
A sign of breathing difficulty in children is a decrease in ___ ___.
pulse rate
A sudden loss of _______ of blood is considered serious in an average adult.
1000cc
A thrombus which has broken loose, moving with blood flow, is called
an embolism
A weakened section of an arterial wall that begins to dilate is known as a(n)
aneurysm
Activated Charcoal: Contraindications
Poor LOC, vomiting
Activated Charcoal: Dosage
1 g/kg of body weight, adults usually 25-50g, children 12.5-25g
Activated Charcoal: Side Effects
Constipation, nausea, vomiting, bowel obstruction
After delivering your first shock with an AED, the patient is still pulseless, you should next
perform two minutes or 5 cycles of CPR
Albuterol: Action
Bronchodilator
Albuterol: Contraindications
Allergy
Albuterol: Dose
2.5 mg nebulized with 2.5 mL saline (for a total of 3mL)
Albuterol: Indications
Acute bronchospasm due to asthma or COPD
Albuterol: Side effects
Headache, tachycardia, hypertension
An example of a shockable rhythm
pulseless ventricular tachycardia
An infant or child patient who exhibits wheezing, increased breathing effort on exhalation, or rapid breathing without stridor probably has:
A lower-airway disease
an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs
bronchitis
ASA: Action
Impedes blood clotting
ASA: Contraindications
allergy, bleeding disorder, already taken 324mg
ASA: Dosage
324mg (81mg x 4)
Atrovent: Action
Bronchodilator
Atrovent: Contraindications
Allergy to drug, soybeans, peanuts, glaucoma
Atrovent: Dose
0.5 mg nebulized w/ 2.5 mL saline (3mL total)
Atrovent: Side Effects
Dry mouth, headache, gastrointestinal distress
caused by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue, from destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli.
emphysema
Chaotic electrical activity originating from many sites in the heart is called:
Ventricular fibrillation
DCAP-BTLS =
deformities, contusions, abrasions, punctures, burns, tenderness, lacerations, swelling
Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and many undetermined respiratory illnesses are classified as
COPD
Epinephrine: Action
vasoconstriction, bronchodilation
Epinephrine: Contraindications
Glaucoma, shock other than anaphylactic, diabetes, cardiac problems, hypertension, pregnancy, meds include a beta blocker or MAOI
Epinephrine: Dosage
Epi-Pen = 0.3mg, Epi-Pen Jr = 0.15mg (for <60 lbs)
Epinephrine: Indications
Anaphylaxis
Epinephrine: Side Effects
Headache, palpitations, hypertension, tachycardia
Flow rates for nasal cannula
1-6 L/min
Flow rates for NRB
12-15 L/min
Full dilation of the cervix occurs in the _______ stage of labor.
first
Glucagon: Action
increases blood glucose by stimulating liver to release stored glycogen
Glucagon: Contraindications
allergy, hx of pheochromocytoma (tumor which secretes epinephrine)
Glucagon: Dosage
1.0 mg for >44lbs, 0.5 mg for <44lbs, repeat in 20 min if no response
Glucagon: Side Effects
hypotension, nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress
Half of all cardiac arrest patients will initially have a _______ rhythm.
Ventricular fibrillation
Hypoglycemia
Blood sugar less than 60
If a cardiac arrest occurs within two hours of the onset of symptoms, it is called
sudden death
If a patient is eight months pregnant, how much blood can she potentially lose before exhibiting signs of shock?
30-35%
If the patient is not defibrillated within _______ minutes of a cardiac arrest, there is almost no chance for survival.
8
In an adult, a systolic BP of __ or less is hypotensive
90mmHg
In patients > 1 y/o, the 1st pulse you check
radial
In the condition called ____, there is not electrical stimulus to cause the heart muscle to contract.
asystole
list of steps to be taken in different situations
protocols
Lung sounds that resemble low-pitched snoring or rattling are called
rhonchi
Normal breathing rate for adults
12-20
Normal breathing rate for children
15-30
Normal breathing rate for infants
25-50
Normal diastolic BP in adults
60 to 90
Normal pulse rate for an adult
60-100 bpm
Normal systolic BP in adults
90 to 150
Not all poisons are toxins. Toxins are poisons that are
produced by living organisms
NTG: Action
vasodilator, decreases blood return to heart
NTG: Contraindications
systolic pressure <100mm/Hg, use of ED med within last 24 hrs, head injury
NTG: Dosage
0.4mg SL, repeat every 3-5 min for 15 min
NTG: Indications
chest pain of cardiac origin, angina, acute CHF
NTG: Side Effects
headache, hypotension, tachycardia
occurs when an object migrates from one part of the body and causes a blockage of a blood vessel in another part of the body
embolism
Order of preference for artifical breathing techniques, best to worst
Mouth to mask, 2-rescuer BVM, Flow-restricted O2 powered device, 1-rescuer BVM
orders from the on-duty MD given directly to an EMT-B
on-line medical direction
Oximeter reading in a normal, healthy person
96-100
Pertinant characteristics of breathing
rate, rhythm, quality, depth
Prior to delivery, if the mother is in the supine position, she may develop dizziness and a drop in blood pressure. This is called:
supine hypotensive syndrome
Signs of internal bleeding include:
Bruising, swelling, and pain over vital organs; painful, swollen, or deformed extremities
Small round purplish spots, called petechiae, are caused by:
capillary bleeding
Splinting a closed, angulated fracture in the position in which it was found may cause a(n) _______ during transport.
open fracture
standing orders issued by the medical director that allow EMTs to do things without speaking to the med director
off-line medical direction
This increases in adults with breathing difficulty.
Pulse rate
the amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by breaths/minute
minute volume
The butt or feet of a baby presents first
Breech presentation
The condition of excessive fluid buildup in the lungs because of the inadequate pumping of the heart is called
CHF
the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system
thrombosis
The normal headfirst delivery of a baby is called a:
Cephalic presentation
The primary electrical disturbance that results in cardiac arrest is...
Ventricular fibrillation
The required amount of suctioning that a suction unit must provide.
30 L/min, 300 mmHg
The spinal column is made up of _______ separate irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae
33
Type _ diabetes usually develops in adults and often is controlled by diet and oral medication.
2
Type _ diabetes usually develops in childhood, and requires at least daily doses of supplemental insulin.
1
Usually only _______ patients can develop hemorrhagic shock due to a closed head injury.
infant
Ventilation rate for adults
12/min
Ventilation rate for children
20/min
Ventilation rate for infants
20/min
What is a very late sign of an ectopic pregnancy?
Low BP
When gases enter the bloodstream as the result of a damaged lung, it is called a(n)
arterial gas embolism
When pressure increases inside the skull because of swelling of brain tissue, blood flow is decreased. This results in...
the brain being starved for oxygen and carbon dioxide increasing, causing more swelling.
The major artery of the arm
brachial artery
APGAR
Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiratory effort
layers of skin, outside to inside
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
Which body parts are considered to be 9% of total body surface area
head, chest, abdomen, both arms, each leg
What part of the body can be used to estimate 1% surface area
palm