Terms in this set (57)
How does the sympathetic nervous system differ from the parasympathetic system?
both are part of the autonomic nervous system,
the sympathetic nervous system is arousing and
the parasympathetic nervous system is calming
The sensory cortex and motor cortex are localized in what brain area?
just in front of the parietal lobe-it runs across the top of the brain from ear to ear
What is interoception and who coined this term?
deals withe the sensory-perceptual processes for events occurring inside the body, including visceral perception-Dr.Craig coined this term.
What is the insula and what does the insula do? And how might the functioning of the insula contribute to out uniqueness as humans?
a long-neglected brain region that has emerged as crucial to understanding what it feels like to be human
it lights up in brain scans when people crave drugs, feel pain, or anticipate pain
The anterior insula cortex is the anticipation of eating cake and interior is the action of eating cake
Perhaps mind and body are integrated in the insula
What is phrenology and how was it both right and wrong?
the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities- it's right because it started the idea that parts of the brain are specific to function in the body, it's wrong because of Dr. Gall said there were 26 organs in the brain....
What does diffusion tensor imaging reveal about the brain?
DTI captures white matter connections-the fiber tracts that wire the brain
What proportion of the cortex is on the surface and what proportion is into furrows and what are the bulges and furrows called?
the bulges are called gyri (one gyrus)
the furrows are called sulci (one sulcus)-really deep forrows are called fissures
1/3 of your cortex is on the surface, 2/3 is tucked deep in the furrows
What does the size of the human brain compare to non-human animals and how does a newborn's brain size compare to that of an adult?
Brain is much larger compared to their body weights
1/7 of the human adult is a brain
a newborn has much heavier brain 1/3 of their body is their brain
How does the Boskop brain and face differ from that of a modern human?
Boskop has a bigger brain, and the skull has a larger forehead with little face
What are the primary cortices and how do they differ from nearby association cortices?
primary visual cortex- most related to picking up the most sensations-behind it
primary auditory cortex
primary sensory cortex-behind it is the association
primary motor cortex-in front of it is the motor association cortex
What are the four lobes of the brain and where are they located?
Frontal lobe is directly in front
parietal lobe behing the frontal
temporal lobe below in the frontal a parietal lobes
the occipital lobe is behing parietal and temporal lobe
What connects the left and righ cerebral hemispheres and what has research with split-brain individuals revealed about the function of each cerebral hemisphere?
the corpus callosum
research shows that those with a lot of seizures that there are lower passes that doesn't go through the corpus callosum
split brain research- found out the hemispheres do
right handed practice language in the left hemisphere
left are a bit analytic, and right are a bit creative
work with top or bottom brain people
What are the Functions of important lower-level brain structures?
-Brainstem, thalamus(relay messages between lower brain centers and cerbral cortex), cerebellum(coordinates voluntary movement and balance and supports memories of such),
amygalda(linked to emotion), hypothalmus(controls maintenace functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine sytem; linked to emotion and reward),
and hippocampus(linked to memory)
What do fMRI images and Diffusion Tensor Images show?
Functional connectivity (fMRI) reflects structural connectivity (DTI) in the Default Mode Network-taking where the blood flows and reflects where it goes in the brain-no radioactivity and shows the exact shape of your brain
What can we learn from studying people like Derek, a musical savant
We can use fMRI and compare with 'normal' brains
What is the meaning of these: dEEG, fMRI, R-fMRI, DMN?
Dense array electroencephalogram
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Default Mode Network
What brain imaging technique gives us information about where brain activity occurs and what brain recording technique gives us information about when brain activity occurs?
fMRI, PET scan, SPECT, EEG
How are researchers using brain scans to read minds?
we think that more active areas of the brain receive more oxygenated blood
the fMRI senses the increased blood flow to show the place of more activity
they are using fMRI to see where parts of the brain are lit up
What was Camillo Golgi's discovery? 1843
Knocks block of brain into a dish of silver nitrate
brain in dish lost for several weeks
under microscope Golgi saw dark blobs suspended in net like tangles
One in 10 stain!
How many neurons are there in the brain and what is there basic structure and function?
50 different shapes that can be related to a different function
The dendrites receive messages from other cells
the axon passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands
the myelin sheath covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
the neural impulse are electrical signals traveling down the axon
terminal branches form junctions with other cells
What was Luigi Galvani's discovery and how is it related to the action potential? 1740
Frog legs on a metal plate
thunder and lightening
frog legs twitch when thunder claps
nerves generate electricity
said all electricity resides in living tissue but he was wrong
with Golgi's discovery too info flows in one direction and this energy is electricity
What is the neuron doctrine?
states that the neuron is the central processing unit of the nervous system and forms the basis of modern neuroscience
What is the Action potential and how does it relate to the neuron doctrine?
ction potential at rest neuron inside is about 70mV
Threshold: -55mV- impulse always same magnitude
Always the same size
more and more action potentials when stimulus intensifies
typically 30-100 action potentials per second
however 50 hertz
What was Otto Loewi's discovery and how does it relate to our understanding of communication among neurons?
discovered first neurotransmitter
What is the synapse and how does it relate to neurotransmitters?
Some neurotransmitters are made in the cell body of the neuron and then transported down the axon to the axon terminal
stored in small packages called vesicles
released from the axon terminal when their vesicles fuse with the membrane of the axon terminal spilling the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft
What are the 2 main cell types that build the nervous system? What is the ratio of one cell type to the other cell type?
Neurons: directly involved in electrical transmission and information processing
have cell body, axon, etc..
today we thin the ratio is somewhere between 1:1 to 10:1-depending on where in the brain the neurons and glia are counted
In the past why did brain scientists think glia were not as important as neurons?
Scientist tried to stimulate glia with electricity and did not get the results they got with neurons
neuroglia were thought to be simply glue
How does the signaling of glia differ from the signaling of neurons?
Glia can communicate among themselves using chemical signaling and no synapses involved
What are the 4 main types of glia and what does each do?
Astrocyte circuits in the brain coordinate activity with neuronal circuits They take up neurotransmitter and nourish neurons
Oligodendrocytes wrap axons in the brain (CNS) with myelin
Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) wrap axons with myelin
Microglia are mobile in the brain and do house cleaning
What can we learn from people who have studied movement and the brain?
location of brain function: movement
rhythmic motor patterns
Who are Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig?
Fritsch and Hitzig stimulated brains of live dogs and found that not only could they cause crude movements of the dogs' bodies, but specific areas of the brain controlled specific movements the brain controlled specific movements
Who is John Hughlings Jackson?
based on observation of his wife's epilieptic seizures
each one followed that same pattern
start at one of her hands, move to her wrist, then shoulder, then her face, and then the leg on the same side of her body
thought seizures were electrical discharges within the brain
Concluded that the brain was divided into different sections; each section controlled the motor function of different parts of the body; since the pattern never varied, the way the brain is organized must be set
Who is Wilder Penfield?
mapped the brain's motor cortex
applied mild electric currents to the exposed brain of patients while they were in surgery
What are Striated muscles?
voluntary muscle or skeletal muscle
most common of the 3 types of muscle in the body (other 2 are smooth and cardiac)
motor neurons innervate striated muscle (the final common path) use the neurotransmitter acetycholine at neuromuscular junction
What are three levels in hierarchy of motor control?
motor areas of the cortex
descending systems of the brain stem and the
What is the connection between Acetylcholine and Myasthenia gravis?
most common disease of the neuromuscular junction
antibody blocks receptor site, so acetylcholine molecules are blocked and muscle cannot contract
amount of acetylcholine released also reduced
muscle fatigue is especially present in the eye muscles, casing drooping of lids on looking upward
How are the movement disorders Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease related to brain processes?
Genetics (hunting tons all movement deep within the brain) and environment-get hit in the head (parkinson's)
Why might the brain be located in the head?
the brain is in the head to cool off the blood is what they thought in the past
eyes, ear, nose-primary senses near the head for quick processing
What are the 3 special senses and what 3 brain regions do they relate to?
vision happens in the visual cortex-primary occipital cortex in the back of the brain
in the thalmus, is important form getting info from the eyes to the occipital cortex
hearing is in the auditory cortex
thalmus is again important to transport info
smell-one synapse in the brain
Receptor neurons for vision (rods and cones) work with what kind of environmental input?
receptor neurons for vision work with electromagnetic radiation
convert an electromagnetic stimulus from the environment into an electrochemical nerve impulse- the common language of the brain
rods-outer segment of rod cell containing photosensitive chemical
in the cone, the outer segment of cone cell containing photosensitive chemical
Cones are for light and rods are for darkness because they are sensitive
How does blood flow relate to PET scans and what is the subtraction method?
active areas use more energy and so need a more oxygen and glucose than other areas
more blood is directed to these areas to meet the demands of the active neurons
PET track blood flow by using labeled chemicals-radioactive
functional image overlays a generalized brain space
1st scan-eyes closed
2nd scan-color only
3rd scan grayscale
average images than subtract (2-1 and 2-3)
Describe where in the brain color vision is processed.
inferior occipital cortex of the left hemisphere
brain damage in this area-individual from stroke show deficits in color vision
How do rods differ from cones?
cones are concentrated in the center of the retina
in bright light conditions, cones provide clear, sharp central vision and detect colors and fine details
rods are located outside the macula and extend all the way to the outer edge of the retina
they provide peripheral or side vision
allow eyes to detect motion and help us see in dim light and at night
Why do we have a blind spot?
at an angle, light going in misses the photoreceptor region and hits the optic disk region of the retina. This is because something is leaving through the optic nerve
What are the 3 layers of the embryonic disk and what will each layer become?
ectoderm will become the nervous system
endoderm will become respiratory and digestive organs
mesoderm contributes to nervous system development
The neural groove becomes what division of the nervous system; the neural crest becomes what division of the nervous system?
ectodermal neural plate ridges swell to form neural tube which becomes CNS and neural crest which develops into PNS (specifically the autonomic division)
What is apoptosis?
before birth, brain produces an overabundance of synapses which are then reduced in number
neurons may receive life-sustaining chemicals when they reach appropriate targets
otherwise apoptosis occurs when connections are inappropriate or nonfunctional or not made at all
they are eliminated through apoptosis
remember that bad function dies
Generally no new neurons grow after birth except where in the brain?
except hippocampus olfactory bulbs(smell brain where we process that odor) and frontal cortex
When it comes to responsiveness to stimuli, what characterizes sleep?
EMG (Electromyogram) tracings are highest during waking intermediate during NREM and lowest during REM sleep
EEG and EOG are both activated during NREM sleep
Disfacilitation (during stages 1-4 of NREM)
Inhibitation (during REM sleep)
NREM responses are dull-garbage truck
REM is a lot of internal stimulation which is why we have such realistic dreams
What is the circadian rhythm and what are 2 characteristics of it?
It governs activity-the clock is in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus specifically in a small cluster of cells on each side of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Internal clock which regulates biological functions, to include alertness
it persist in the absence of time cues (endogenously generated)
entrained or synchronized by time cues
What is a dream?
are we conscious when we are sleeping?
Ancient Egyptians thought they served as warnings, advice and prophecy from the gods
Ancient Greeks thought dreams were messengers from a supernatural agent=children of the night from Fate, Sleep and Death
What are characteristics of NREM dreams?
fMRI studies show more activation of frontal cortex in NREM than REM
stage 2 NREM more brain activation than stages 3 and 4
More frequent description of social interaction in NREM and REM than waking
non aggressive in dream in NREM more realistic and social in interactions
What characterizes REM dreams?
some dreamers can subjectively determine whether they themselves had been awakened from REM or from NREM vivid and bizarre
What are Hypnogogic dreams?
Hypnogogic: just when falling asleep
What are hypnopompic dreams?
Hypnopompic: just before waking up
What is the mind-body problem?
examines the relationship between mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain.
What do the study of dreams contribute to the mind-body problem?