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Brain and Behavior Exam 1
Terms in this set (39)
Who was Cajal/What did he contribute?
Cajal was a neuroscientist and he was the first person to show that neurons had gaps in between them by using staining techniques
What are the main cells of the nervous system?
Soma- contains nucleus, Dendrites- receive info, Spines- increase surface area of dendrites, Axon- thin fiber/body of synapse/info sender, Myelin- covers axon/helps axon send info, Nodes- spaces in between myelin layer, Terminals- transfer info from pre synapse to post synapse, Axon Hillock- helps send info down axon
Describe the internal components of the neuron
Membrane: maintains diff between inside/outside, Nucleus: contains chromosomes, Mitochondria: performs energy activities, Ribosomes: synthesizes new protein molecules, Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports synthesized proteins to their location
Describe the cell membrane
Maintains difference between inside and outside, made up of fats and lipid bilayer
What are dendrites and spines?
Dendrites bring information to the neuron through receptors. Spines increase surface area to allow better access for those receptors
Name the glial cell types, and provide a brief description of some of their basic functions
Astrocyte- synchronize/limit activity and are wrapped around the presynaptic terminals and also create the blood brain barrier, oligos- make myelin in central nervous system , radial glia- helps cell migrate neurons , microglia- clean waste in central nervous system
Discuss the blood brain barrier
Blocks most chemicals, viruses, and bacteria from entering brain
What is active transport?
A protein mediated process that moves chemicals into the brain
What is the action potential and what does it have to do with neurons?
Action Potential- is the electrical signal that is transmitted down axon of a neuron (Depolarization of of neuron)
Describe the electrical gradient. How is it maintained?
measures inside of neuron, maintained by the membrane
What is the resting potential?
Remaining at rest until neuron is stimulated, average is -70 mV
Discuss voltage-activated channels. What happens & how do they work?
After there is a large enough stimulus, Na+ channels open and Na+ enters and K+ rushes out
What is myelin and what makes myelin in the CNS and the PNS?
Myelin is a layer or sheath that forms around nerves that allows impulses to travel quickly and cleanly. CNS myelin is formed by oligos and PNS myelin is formed by Schwann cells...?
Describe saltatory conduction
jumping of an action potential from node to node
What did Sherrington do and what did he identify?
Sherrington coined the term synapse and identified that reflexes can occur even when spine is disconnected from the brain
Explain temporal and spatial summation
Temporal- repeated stimuli over a short period of time has a cumulative effect and produced a stronger response, Spatial- several small stimuli in a similar location produced a reflex when a single one didn't
What are EPSPs and IPSPs?
Excitatory and Inhibitory Post-Synpatic Potentials
EPSP's= graded potential that decays over time (temporal) and space (spatial)
IPSP's= temporary hyper polarization of a neuron membrane
How do inhibitory synapses work in the knee jerk reflex?
An interneuron excited flexor muscles in one leg and inhibited others
What was Otto Loewi's experiment (i.e., the vagus nerve experiment)? Identify the neurotransmitter involved in the change
Stimulated the nerve of a frog and transferred fluid to a 2nd frog that caused a decrease in heart rate. GABA was the NT
State the major categories of NTs
Monoamines= synthesized from amino acids, Amino Acids= obtained from diet, Purines= also synthesized from amino acids, Gas= is gas, Acetylcholine= modified amino acid, Peptides= formed from chains of amino acids/comes from NT's, MAP GAP
What are the steps in the chemical events at the synapse?
Synthesized= Large NT (created in soma), Small NT (created in presynaptic terminal)
Transported down axon
Released w/ CA2+ into synapse
Binds to receptor of postsynaptic neuron
Separates from receptor
Removed (taking key out)
Feedback (positive= stays same, negative= reset)
What is a negative feedback loop?
An alteration of the activity of the presynaptic neuron
What are the two types of ways a neurotransmitter can activate a receptor? What is a second messenger?
Inotropic Effect- NT attaches to receptors and opens ion channels very quickly,
Metabotropic Effect- NT initiates slower/longer reactions and bends protein and increases concentration of a 2nd messenger,
2nd messenger- communicates w/internal components
Explain the general role of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland- consists of anterior/posterior gland, Hypothalamus- causes pituitary gland to release hormones
Characterize (explain) some of the ways that drugs can alter synaptic activity. What are the terms you learned? Describe Olds and Milner's experiment
Agonist- mimics/increases the effects on NT's, antagonists- block effects of NT's, Affinity- ability to bind to receptor, efficacy- activate receptor, the stimulation of the nucleus accumbens caused rats to frantically press lever due to the release of dopamine released when lever was pressed
State the major drug categories
How are the nucleus accumbens and Dopamine related to substance abuse and addictions?
If the nucleus accumbens can be stimulated, the release of dopamine can be controlled by the user and the user will get addicted to causing the release of dopamine due to it being in their control
How do amphetamines and cocaine alter synaptic activity?
They alter how much dopamine is released whether it be blocking the dopamine from being released or releasing large amounts at a time
What is the drug classification for opioids and how do they alter synaptic activity
Opioids are synthetic drugs and they alter synaptic activity by altering the natural release of dopamine
What are endorphins?
Endorphins are endogenous morphine like substances, they inhibit the release of GABA which leads to release of dopamine
Describe how cannabinoids alter synaptic activity and state what is unusual about their mechanism of action
Cannabinoids alter synaptic activity and state by THC attaching to cannabinoid receptors and causing perception change/memory impairment.
Define tolerance and withdrawal
Tolerance- the person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded. Stated another way, it takes a higher dose of the drug to achieve the same level of response achieved initially, Withdrawal- Physical and mental symptoms that occur after stopping or reducing intake of a drug
What is Na+?
What is K+?
What are Na+ and K+ and what do they do?
Proteins, maintain electrical gradient
What does the concentration gradient do?
changes electrical gradient
What is MDMA?
What is the actual name of LSD?
lysergic acid diethylamide
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