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128 terms

A&P I

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The sites where ribosomes assemble prior to their migration into the cytoplasm is the:
nucleolus
A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is:
hypotonic
The lungs and the heart are in the __________ body cavity
thoracic
In anatomical position:
the body is erect with feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
A section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into equal right and left part is called:
median (midsagittal)
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as:
endocrine
The phase of cell division during which the chromatids are pulled apart and move to the opposite ends of the cell is:
anaphase
The atomic number of an atom is the number of:
protons in the atomic nucleus
The study of the function of the body and body parts is called:
physiology
Shell 1 of an atom can hold a maximum of __________ electron(s):
2
The ovary is part of which of the following two systems:
reproductive and endocrine systems
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the electrical charge of subatomic
particles:
protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral
Atomic mass is equivalent to the number of __________ in an atom.
protons and neutrons
The tiny finger-like projections that increase the surface are of the cell for quicker absorption are
called:
microvilli
The correct order of phases of the cell cycle is:
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
The system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the exterior is the:
respiratory system
Ninety-six percent of the human body is composed of the elements:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
DNA replication takes place during:
interphase
The dorsal body cavity houses the:
spinal cord and brain
Positive feedback systems:
operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases
The type of muscle found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, and in the walls of blood vessels is:
smooth muscle
The reaction A + B → AB is an example of a(n):
synthesis reaction
Which of the following is NOT connective tissue:
blood
Glucose and starch are examples of:
carbohydrates
The organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting as enzymes are the:
proteins
An atom with an atomic number of 14 will have __________ electrons in its valence shell.
4
Two types of passive transport are:
diffusion and filtration
Ribosomes are found:
in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body:
chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level
A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order:
1. stratum basale
2. stratum corneum
3. stratum granulosum
4. stratum lucidum
5. stratum spinosum
2, 3, 5, 1
Stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelial cells.
False
Carbon is found in all inorganic compounds.
False
The endocrine system is the fast-acting body control system.
True
There is no physical structure that separates the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity.
True
The process of facilitated diffusion requires energy.
False
Proximal means farther from the origin of a body part.
False
When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution it will swell and may rupture.
False
The epidermis is made up of stratified squamous epithelium.
False
Desmosomes are junctions that allow cell communication.
False
Smooth muscle cells are uninucleated spindle-shaped cells that are voluntary.
False
The lower the pH, the greater the number of hydrogen ions.
True
A round or oval opening through a bone is a:
foramen
The hyoid bone is unique because:
it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone
The atlas is the:
first cervical vertebra
During skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:
actin filaments
Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system:
hematopoiesis
Which one of the following muscle actions would NOT be classified as an ISOTONIC contraction:
pushing against a stationary wall
The tailbone is the:
coccyx
Which of these bones is NOT a long bone found in the leg:
A) metatarsals
B) tibia
C) femur
D) fibula
E) patella
patella
The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that:
bone length is no longer increasing
Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.
A) scapula B) fibula C) clavicle D) radius E) humerus
fibula
All of the following facial bones are paired except one. Which of the following is the unpaired facial bone:
A) vomer
B) maxillae
C) lacrimal
D) palatine
E) zygomatic
vomer
Which is the correct order of ribs, from superior to inferior:
true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs
The mechanical force of contraction is generated by:
a sliding of thin filaments past thick ones
The greater trochanter is located on the:
femur
The axial skeleton contains:
1. skull
2. arms and legs
3. ribs and sternum
4. vertebrae
5. pelvic girdles
1, 3, 4
Which of these bones is NOT associated with the foot:
A) calcaneus
B) metatarsals
C) metacarpals
D) tarsals
E) talus
metacarpals
There are four stages in the healing of a bone fracture. Which of the following best illustrates the sequence of these stages:
1. bony callus formation 3. fibrocartilage callus formation
2. bone remodeling 4. hematoma formation
4, 3, 1, 2
A compound fracture can be described as when:
the broken bone is exposed to the outside
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are __________, whereas articulations permitting no movement are called __________.
amphiarthroses; synarthroses
Which of the following groups of bones in the human body, categorized according to shape, is
correct:
skull bones - flat bones
The sella turcica is part of the __________ bone.
sphenoid
The middle nasal conchae are part of the:
ethmoid bone
Fingers and toes are referred to as:
phalanges
Which one of the following is composed of myosin protein:
thick filaments
There are __________ vertebrae in the neck region.
seven cervical
The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the:
manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Which of these events must occur first to trigger the skeletal muscle to generate an action potential and contract:
acetylcholine (ACh) causes temporary permeability to sodium
Which of the following is correct of the female pelvis when comparing it with the male pelvis:
A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller
B) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker
C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less
D) the female iliac bones are less flared
E) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater
the distance between the female ischial spines is greater
A structure found on the femur is the:
intercondylar fossa
Transverse foramina are found in the:
cervical vertebra
The zygomatic bones form the cheekbones.
True
In anatomical position, the lateral lower leg bone is the fibula.
True
The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.
False
You have more bones as an adult than you do at birth
False
Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have no anterior attachments.
False
Most of the stress on the vertebral column occurs on the sturdiest vertebrae in the sacral region.
False
Atlas
irregular bone
Femur
long bone
Ulna
long bone
Carpals
short bones
Patella
short and sesamoid bone
An elaborate and specialized network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that function in calcium storage is the:
sarcoplasmic reticulum
The condition of skeletal muscle fatigue can be best explained by:
insufficient intracellular quantities of ATP due to excessive consumption
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n):
synergist only
Acetylcholine is:
a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle
The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the:
axon
The peripheral nervous system consists of:
the spinal and cranial nerves
The term central nervous system refers to the:
brain and spinal cord
During skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:
actin filaments
The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called:
a neurotransmitter
The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called:
dendrites
While doing "jumping jacks" during an exercise class, your arms and legs move laterally away from the midline of your body. This motion is called:
abduction
Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response during threatening situations is the role of the:
sympathetic nervous system
The blood-brain barrier is effective against the passage of:
metabolic waste such as urea
The gap between two communicating neurons is termed:
synaptic cleft
The insertion of the gluteus maximus is the:
femur
Which one of the following functions do calcium ions perform during skeletal muscle contraction:
expose myosin binding sites on the actin
Sandra is playing the piano for her recital. Which muscle is not involved in the movement of her hands and/or fingers:
extensor digitorum longus
Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are:
myelinated
The three major parts of the brain stem are the:
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Afferent nerves are called __________, and motor nerves are called __________.
sensory nerves; efferent nerves
A sarcomere is:
the contractile unit between two Z discs
Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid:
potassium
Which of the following does not describe cardiac muscle tissue:
attached to bones
What type of membrane wraps a fascicle:
perimysium
Which one of the following muscles is involved in abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint:
A) triceps brachii
B) pectoralis major
C) deltoid
D) biceps brachii
E) latissimus dorsi
triceps brachii
An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell:
sodium
Muscle tissue that has involuntary regulation of contraction is:
cardiac and smooth muscles
White matters refer to myelinated fibers in the:
CNS
Which one of the following is NOT a criteria generally used in naming muscles:
A) relative size of the muscle
B) method of attachment of the muscle to bone
C) number of origins of the muscle
D) action of the muscle
E) shape of the muscle
method of attachment of the muscle to bone
The cerebrospinal fluid:
is continually formed mostly by the choroid plexuses
Which one of the following represents the correct sequence from outermost to innermost layers of the meninges:
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical reflex arc:
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
Which one of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, going from
superior to inferior:
cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates through all of the following except:
corpus callosum
Which one of the following is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential:
1. the membrane becomes depolarized
2. sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward
3. the membrane becomes repolarized
4. potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively
1, 2, 4, 3
The axon terminals of a nerve cell and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell join at the:
neuromuscular junction
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are synergistic actions.
false
An afferent sensory neuron carries stimuli from the central nervous system to the effector.
false
There are 31 pairs of cranial nerves and 12 pairs of spinal nerves.
true
Skeletal muscles need nerve stimulation for contraction to occur.
true
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and also in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.
true
A contraction in which a skeletal muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called
isometric.
true
A muscle twitch results when the muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation
is seen.
true
The insertion of the biceps brachii muscle is on the radius.
true
The nodes of Ranvier are found at regular intervals only on myelinated, peripheral nerve fibers.
true
The effect of the neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to temporarily modify its permeability of ions such as Na+ and K+.
true