26 terms

Rome Vocabulary

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volcano
an opening in the surface of the Earth through which moloten rock, gases, and rock fragments are forced out
plebeian
A common farmer, trade, or craftworker in Ancient Rome.
patrician
A member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic.
republic
A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
representative
A person who is elected by citizens to speak or act for them
Senate
The lawmaking body and most powerful branch of government in ancient Rome's republic.
tribune
An elected leader of anicent Rome who represented the interests of the plebians.
consul
One of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and was a supreme judge.
Twelve Tables
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450 B.C., that became the foundation for Roman law.
Punic Wars
A conflict between Rome and Carthage in the 200s BC, ending in a victory for Rome.
civil war
An armed conflict between groups within one country.
dictator
A ruler who has absolute power.
Pax Romana
A period of peace for the Roman Empire that began with the rule of Augustus in about 27 BC and lasted around 200 years
gladiator
A Roman athlete, usually a slave, criminal or prisoner of war, who was forced to fight for the entertainment of the public.
census
A periodic count of all the people living in a country, city, or other region.
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and his early followers.
Messiah
A special leader the Jewish people believe will be sent by God to guide them and set up God's rule on Earth. Christians believe Jesus to be the messiah.
Christianity
A religion based on the teachings of Jesus, as recorded in the New Testament.
parable
A simple story that contains a message or truth.
apostle
One of the twelve closest followers of Jesus, chosen by him to help him teach.
crucifixion
Execution on a cross.
bishop
A church official who leads a large group of Christians in a particular region.
pope
The bishop, or church leader, of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church.
persecution
A policy of arresting, injuring, or killing members of a religious or ethnic group.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire and that does not recognize the Pope as its supreme leader.
Justinian Code
A code of law that standardized laws in the Byzantine Empire and dealt with marriage, property rights, slavery, crime, and women's rights.