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DPT 706 Final Test - Aging, obesity and stroke big ideas
Terms in this set (32)
What are the key benefits of physical activity for older adults?
Dec risk of fall, dec risk of dementia and inc QOL
Why is it important for physical activity in the older population?
Co-morbidities and lack of exericse in general
How is obesity generally defined?
Chronic, relapsing, multifactorial, neurobehavirloal disease that increase in body fat promotes adipose tissue dysfunction and abnormal fat mass resulting in a adverse metabolic, biomechanical and psychosocial health consequences
What are the 6 components of metabolic syndrome (cardio metabolic disease)?
Central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver
What are the three components of energy expenditure?>
Resting energy expenditure, physical activity, and thermic effect of food
BMI and obesity?
> 30 (extreme being > 40)
Men vs women waist circumference and obesity
Men = > 102 cm / > 40 inches
Women = > 88 cm / > 35 inches
Higher percent of what is associated with increased risk of cardio metabolic disease?
What are the mechanisms that are behind the pathophysiology of obesity?
Low-grade inflammatory state that leads to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endocrine imbalance, leptin hormones
What are some major physiological benefits of engaging in exercise for those patients who have obesity?
Preservation of lean mass despite caloric restriction, loss of regional fat, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, reduced BP, overall comorbidity dec risk
What is the percentage of sustained weight loss that is likely ro result in clinically-meaningful reduction in CVD factors?q
Type 1 vs Type 2 diabetes
Type 1 = absolute insulin deficiency (can be linked to auto-immune response)
type 2 = relative insulin deficiency that happens even in a hyperglycemic state no matter their insulin stats
Tell me about gestational diabetes
Diangosed in weeks 24-48, usually goes away after birth, often times women who have this during pregnancy will get rearguard DM 5-10 years after birth
Stats that indicate DM after a a 8 hour fast?
Stats that indicate DM randomly
> 200 and hyperglycemic
STats that indicate DM after 2 hours after glucose?
Stats that indicate DM in regards to HbA1c?
What are the thresholds for pre-diabetes?
Fasting blood gluocse = 100-125
2 hours after carbs = 140-199
HbA1c = 5.7-6.4%
What are some major risk factors for T2DM?
Genes, obesity, insulin resistance, history of CVD, dyslipidemia
What are the major physioglical benefits of exercise training in patients with T2DM?
Improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and liver, dec insulin output via pancreas
Does flexibility training affect glucose control, body comp or insulin action?
What is the most common exercise-realted concern for diabetes?
What are some special considerations for exericse testing and training in patients with T2DM?
Stress test, silent ischemia, comorbidity, limited ROM
Indications for Hypoglycemia?
< 70 mg/dL (NO EXERCISE)
< 100 mg/dL? Snack then wait 15-20 minutes
Pallor, shaky, sweating, excessive hunger, tachycardia, faint, dizzy, weak
indications for Hyperglycemia?
No exericse > 250 and evidence of ketosis
Can exericse > 300 if no evidence of ketosis up to moderate intensity
Dry mouth, faint pulse, changes in urination, thirsty, fruity breath, dec releases, confusion, lethargy
Ischemic vs hemorrhagic stroke
Ischemic = vessels supplying blood become blocked so they can't produce ATP and excess glutamate which leads to mitochondrial breakdown that releases toxins and cells die
Hemorrhagic stroke = blood vessels rupture which forms edema and compresses brain tissue that leads to inflammation and a excessive amount of glutamate and blood is reabsored into periphery of hemorrhage which forms cavity of dead tissue
Common things that can lead to a stroke?
HTN** leading cause of stroke and most controllable risk factor
DM, obesity, high cholesterol, a-fib, carotid artery and peripheral artery disease, sickle cell disease, smoking, poor diet, PA, inc alcohol conspmuption, drug use and poor sleep quality
What are the two major factors GTB at determine the magnitude of impariemtsn resulting from a stroke?
Loation and size
What are some likely mechanism of patients who have had a stroke in regards to their significant dec in VO2peak?
Altered circulatory control, shift of skeletal muscle fibers to non-=oxidative, energy inefficiency related to altered gait and Neuromotor control
What can vasodilators lead to post-Exericse?
DM is the leading cause of what three things?
Adult blindness, end-stage kidney failure, and non-traumatic amputation
_______ is the leading cause of DM-related death.
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