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Chapter 13 The Renaissance
Terms in this set (78)
A flourishing of art, science, and philosophy between the 14th and 16th centuries
A historian considered the discoverer of the Renaissance as a movement, and asserted the distinction of the Renaissance as compared to the Middle Ages.
An independent political entity comprised of a city.
A government ruled by one man in Italian cities such as Milan.
A government in which the power is held by a small group, such as a family.
A contract between a merchant and a merchant adventurer who agrees to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds for 1/3 of the profit.
A soldier for hire.They were mercenary generals of private armies hired by cities for military purposes.
Republic of Florence
A city-state run during the Renaissance by the Medici family. It was one of the most powerful city-states in Italy.
A powerful banking family that gained power in Florence in the 15th century. They were major patrons of the arts, and helped majorly in the Florentine renaissance.
Cosimo de' Medici
The first major patriarch of the Medici family. He presided over the family's banking empire as it grew, and financially supported the rise of multiple popes.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Grandson of Cosimo de' Medici, he dominated the city when Florence was the cultural center on Italy.
Duchy of Milan
Ruled by the Sforza Family after 1450, it was a principal adversary of Venice and Florence until the Peace of Lodi created a relative 40- year period of peace among the Italian city states.
The ruling family of the Duchy of Milan after the disposal of the Visconti family.
Peace of Lodi
A treaty between Venice and Milan ending the war of succession to the Milanese duchy in favor of Francesco Sforza. It marked the beginning of a 40-year period of relative peace between the Italian city-states.
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers unit Napoleon. Also one of the world's great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries.
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
Naples, Kingdom of the two Sicilies
A port and tourist center in southwestern Italy, Only Italian city state to official have a "king".
The King encouraged to take the throne by Joan of Arc. He managed to push back the English army and end the Hundred Years War.
A Dominican Friar who attacked the government of Lorenzo de' Medici and the corruption of Pope Alexander VI. He became a religious leader of Florence, and was excommunicated and executed by the Pope.
An Italian political theorist whose book The Prince describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.
A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, and a member of the Spanish Borgia family, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.
Sack of Rome
a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States in 1527.
A Devoted Catholic, he went against Luther's ideas and controlled the German states.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
An ideology celebrated by many rich merchants in Italian city-states that preached public virtue and serving one's state for the greater good.
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura".
The man who wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Writer who outlined the principles of humanist education: Greek, Latin and Christianity; importance of poetry, philosophy and antiquity and importance in the power of expression.
Wrote "On Pleasure", and "On the False Donation of Constantine", which challenged the authority of the papacy. He is the father of modern historical criticism.
Created by Jerome, it was first Bible written in the vernacular.
The man who founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote "On the Dignity of Man" which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
An Italian author who wrote the book The Courtier in 1528. He described the ideal Renaissance man and woman.
A person highly skilled in music or another artistic pursuit
The inventor of the printing press and moveable type.
An Italian painter and art historian who wrote "The Lives of the Artists". Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medicis and the churches, who saw art as a means of glorifying God.
Pope Alexander VI
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
An Italian word designating the contrast of dark and light in a painting, drawing, or print.
medieval faces in art--more stylized and generic- faces expressed unique characteristics.
A style of painting that creates a soft, smoky look and soft edges to the figures and scenery in a painting. It was commonly used in the works of Leonardo Da Vinci.
A style of Greek sculpture where people are depicted standing and leaning so that the person's weight is being put on one side. People are depicted with their bodies curved like an "S".
Greek Temple architecture
The inclusion of triangular pediments, Greek columns, Roman arches and domes in Renaissance era buildings.
A Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism; sometimes called the "father of renaissance painting"
An architect that, by basing his ideas on geometric principles, reintroduced planes and spheres as dominant motifs.
A Florentine sculptor who designed the bronze doors for the Baptistry in Florence after winning a contest in 1401.
A master of sculpture in both marble and bronze; one of the greatest of all Renaissance artists.
A Florentine artist who was the first to start using light and shade to help achieve perspective. He also developed linear perspective. It was first shown in "The Tribute Money". He had a large influence on other Renaissance artists.
An Italian Renaissance painter best known for his painting, "Birth of Venus"; in "Birth of Venus" he painted the ideal for female beauty during the Renaissance; slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders.
An architect who was one of the original architects of St. Peter's basilica in the Vatican.
A Renaissance Man. He was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and a scientist. He painted The Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.
A leading figure of Italian High Renaissance classicism, Raphael is best known for his "Madonnas," including the Sistine Madonna, and for his large figure compositions in the Palace of the Vatican in Rome.
An Italian Renaissance artist that painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
A Renaissance painter in Venice who used vivid color and movement. He is known for "Assumption of the Virgin," among others.
An artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symmetry, balance, and simplicity. It went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art, and used elongated proportions, twisted poses and compression of space.
A Greek artist famous in Spain. He painted with contemporary and abstract styles.
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations Germany, Flanders, France, and England. It took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance
A movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church.
A Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe. On Praise of Folly.
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society.
Jaques Lefevre d'Etables
Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative version of the bible, and was later condemned for heresy.
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
A Spanish humanist who rigorously reformed the Spanish clergy and Church. He was the Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition, and wrote the "Complutensian Polyglot Bible," combining Hebrew, Greek and Latin versions all together.
A Former monk and French humanist who wrote the comic masterpieces Gargantua and Pantagruel. The stories contained gross humor.
Michel de Montaigne
A French thinker and author of essays such as "On Cripples" and "On Cannibals".
An English dramatist and poet; considered one of the greatest writers in the English Language.
Miguel de Cervantes
A Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
A Northern Renaissance Art with more detail throughout painting, the use of oil paints, more emotional than the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death.
Jan van Eyck
A Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting.
A surrealist painter of the Netherlands who focused his works on symbolism, fantasy, confusion, death and the torments of Hell. He is famous for painting "Death and the Miser".
A Dutch artist who painted realistic portraits and scenes of peasant life.
A German painter and engraver he used his observations of nature and anatomy to create portraits and religious painting filled with small details
Hans Holbein the younger
A German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
A family in Germany who had a great deal of money due to international banking, and they used thir pull to patronize art of the Northern Renaissance.
Christine de Pisan
An educated, privileged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies."
First lady of the Renaissance, she was an example for women to break away from traditional roles, and even founded a school for young women. She ruled Mantua, was well educated and a big patron of the arts.
Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes.