51 terms

World History: Renaissance and Reformation Review

This study set is made for the benefit of World History classes that would like to review for the exam
STUDY
PLAY
What is the Renaissance
1. Beginning of the Modern World
2. Break from Middle Ages
3. Rebirth of interest in Ancient Culture
Why does the Renaissance start in Italy
Urban Trading society, renewed interest in ancient culture, location of Italy, Wealth and Politics
Major family of Milan
Sforzas
How the Sforzas controlled and gained power
used mercenaries and tax system
Major family that controlled Florence
Medici Family
Main four reasons how Italian city-states gained power
traded with foreign countries
created their own armies
much political power
created tax systems
Why France and Spain invaded Italy
Italian location that brought riches
How was France and Spain able to succeed in taking over Italy
Spain and France = unified nations
Italian city-states = not unified
Machiavelli
Wrote the Prince
Central theme: how to get and maintain power
Changed political thought: to disregard christian morals to get/maintain power
Renaissance social classes: The Townspeople
Urban Traders
Burghers: middle class that grew due to influx of wealth in Italy
Renaissance social class that was the largest social class
Peasants
Renaissance social class that held political high positions
Rulers and Nobles
How social classes differed from the Medieval Ages to the Renaissance
Clergy is not at the top of society anymore
What is humanism
intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of human nature; instead of religion
Humanists studied this "subject" that entailed Greek and Roman art, philosophy and history
The Classics/ the Humanities
Called the Father of the Renaissance due to his search of Greek and Roman documents
Petrarch
Humanists translate _________ into the ___________ so that the normal everyday citizen can understand what was written
Latin
Vernacular
What is the main purpose of Renaissance Education?
To prepare students for all areas of life/contribute to government and the progression of the human race
Renaissance Education was shaped by humanism because it became more secular. What does Secularism mean?
Secularism = less focused on religion, more focused on intellect of humans/beauty of humans/accomplishments of humans
Invented movable type printing press
Johannes Gutenberg
The impact of the printing press
More printed books
Encourages people to read
Literacy Rate Increases
Scholarly work increases
More people interested in humanist topics
How were Italian Renaissance Painters influenced by humanism?
Used their artistic ability to replicate/paint/sculpt using Roman/Greek technique's of: nature and the perfections of the human body instead of only religion.
Which High Renaissance Man studied anatomy and also created blueprints for the primitive helicopter and tank
Leonardo Da Vinci
Renaissance artist who created "The School of Athens" which represented the greatest thinkers of Greeks/Roman times and the Renaissance - in one painting
Raphael
Renaissance artist who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel/ The Last Supper/ the Statue of David and sculpted the Pieta
Michelangelo
Religion based on predestination
Calvinism - created by John Calvin
How did humanism influence art?
Renaissance artists used the methods that Greeks/Roman used which included the use of perspective and the physical beauty of humans and the beauty of nature
Time period influenced by the Renaissance and humanist thought to protest and split the Catholic church
the Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther posted this on a church door, criticizing the Catholic Church
95 theses
95 theses purpose
to oppose the Catholic church and expose how the Catholic church was abusing their power
Founder of the Anglican Church
King Henry VIII
Edict of Worms
When the Holy Roman Emperor declared Martin Luther as a criminal
When Catholics tried to gain followers back by removing indulgences and going back to the original Catholic faith
Catholic Reformation
2 core beliefs in the 95 theses
1. Salvation through faith and faith alone
2. Bible is only authority, not people
True or False: Calvinism was the first Protestant faith
FALSE - Lutheranism
First Protestant sect created
Lutheranism
Who did Erasmus influence?
Martin Luther
First to criticize the Catholic church by studying Church abuses
Erasmus
Machiavelli's famous book that debated whether or not to be feared or loved when wanting to gain/retain power
"Prince"
Reasons why German princes in the Holy Roman Empire became Lutheran
No tax obligation to Pope, convinced by Martin Luther about Catholic Church abuses, Geographic location (Germany) is further away from Papal States (where Pope lives)
Peace of Augsburg
After war in the Holy Roman Empire: Freedom to worship any religion in the Holy Roman Empire
Anabaptists
Believed in separation of Church and State
Catholic Reformation
When the Catholic church began to reform the practices back to the original way/ fix problems that were causing the Protestant Reformation
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed original Catholic Teaching; within the Catholic Reformation
English Reformation: Reason for/ results
King Henry VIII (England) wants divorce, Pope doesn't allow, King creates own religion - Church of England/Anglican Church
Act of Supremacy
King Henry VIII declaring himself the leader of his own established church; The Church of England (the Anglican Church)
Venice
opened up the major trading market from Asia bringing in exotic goods
Papal States
Location of Pope, having power over much of Renaissance/Medieval Society
Milan
Controlled by the Sforza family who dominated the region using an efficient tax system and the use of mercenaries
Florence
Where the Renaissance truly flourished/began. This region was controlled by the Medici Family through wealth and powerful connections, even with the Pope.
Kingdom of Naples
This area was less urban and more rural, making it difficult to keep up with the other city-states of Renaissance Italy.
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