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Organizational Behavior Test 1-Longmire
Terms in this set (191)
The degree to which a person's skill, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics exceed the job requirements.
The degree to which a person is organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, and dependable; how an individual approaches goals (achievement-oriented)
false consensus error
How we as human beings overestimate how similar we are to other people
The degree to which a person is anxious, irritable, aggressive, temperamental, and moody.
how we respond to stress/negative experiences
MBTI vs. Big 5...which is more reliable (test) and has more accurate outcome predictions (predictive power)
happens when an established stereotype causes one to behave in a certain way, which leads the other party to behave in a way that makes the stereotype come true
internal locus of control
a person's belief that they control their own destiny and what happens to them is their own doing
openness to experience
The degree to which a person is curious, original, intellectual, creative, open to new ideas, and tolerant of change
rates from high to low...
rates from high to low...
rates from high to low...
-trust of others
rates from low to high...
rates from low to high...
The tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and to see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us.
the tendency to attribute our failures to the situation while attributing our successes to internal causes
The degree to which a person's values, personality, goals, and other characteristics match those of the organization.
the degree to which a person is outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoys being in social situations; degree to which a person can tolerate sensory stimulation from people and situations (assertiveness)
The degree to which a person is nice, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, warm, and can take other's opinions into account
Explaining someone's behavior using the internal characteristics of the actor.
the relatively stable feelings, thoughts, and behavioral patterns a person has; 40-60% explained by genetics; affected by both nature and nurture
Importance of personality
Affects job selection, job behaviors, and overall attitudes of performance
overall attitudes of performance
job satisfaction, commitment, & involvement
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and The Big 5 Model
Assessments of personality
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
identifies 8 personality preferences w/ 4 pairs of opposites (EI - energy source, SN- gather info, TF - make decisions, JP - preferred lifestyle)
The Big Five personality dimensions (OCEAN)
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism (emotional stability)
the extent to which people base (alter) their behavior and appearance on cues from other people and across different social situations; enhanced social skills & conflict management
What is the most important trait for attracting advantageous positions in social networks?
process with which individuals detect and interpret environmental stimuli
the casual explanation we give for an observed behavior
Initial thoughts and perceptions we form about people, which tend to be stable and resilient to contrary information.
When we pay selective attention to parts of the environment while ignoring other parts.
a belief that one can perform a specific task successfully
negative affective people
People who experience negative moods with greater frequency, focus on the "glass half empty," and experience more anxiety and nervousness.
positive affective people
people who experience positive moods more frequently and tend to be happier at work
Generalizations based on a perceived group characteristic.
the degree to which a person has overall positive feelings about oneself
The tendency to underestimate our performance and capabilities, and to see events in a way that puts ourselves in a more negative light.
external locus of control
a person's belief that things happen because of other people, luck, or a powerful being
End states people desire in life, such as leading a prosperous life and a world at peace.
Views on acceptable modes of conduct, such as being honest and ethical, and being ambitious.
a person's inclination to fix what is perceived to be wrong, change the status quo, and use initiative to solve problems
stable life goals people have, reflecting what is most important to them
explaining someone's behavior by referring to the situation
The practice of answering questions in a way one thinks the company is looking for.
The degree to which a person's skill, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics match the job demands.
behavior is a function of the person and situation interacting with each other; situational conditions in which the effect of personality on job performance is even stronger (or weaker)
fear of social judgment (not the same as introversion)
today, extraverts are seen as smarter by teachers when in reality _____ perform better on tests; zone of stimulation that is best for the individual, mainly directed inward in quieter settings
Tips for extraverts working w/ introverts
-provide written info. in advance of meeting
-ask for their ideas
-allow them time to think before responding
-1 on 1 time along with a whole team
-allow for breaks
-listen persuasively, i.e. resist the urge to interrupt
Tips for introverts working with extraverts
-allow them to 'think out loud'
-show evidence of your involvement and interest
-respond more quickly even if ideas are less polished
-offer your opinion w/o being asked
-listen persuasively, i.e. show 'signs of life' when they are speaking
Big 5 = pretty much universal
Is personality universal?
countries w/ highest self-esteem (self-concept)
Serbia, Chile, Israel, US, Peru, Estonia
countries w/ lowest self-esteem (self-concept)
South Korea, Switzerland, Morocco, Slovakia, Fiji
Six Cultural Dimensions
-Collectivism vs. Individualism
-Uncertainty Avoidance Index
-Femininity vs. Masculinity
-Short-term vs. Long-term Orientation
-Restraint vs. indulgence
culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group; stress independence over dependence; reward individual achievement; value uniqueness
culture whose members focus more on the needs of the group and less on individual desires; obligation to group is norm; self is defined in relation to others; focus on cooperation, not competition
extent to which people view steep hierarchy (vs. equality) as normal
high power distance
power is scare resource; natural and inevitable differences in power; centralization of power
low power distnace
minimal power differences; power can be achieved through work; superiority is not rigid
uncertainty avoidance index
-low = comfortable with uncertainty
-high = uncomfortable with uncertainty
Feminity vs Masculinity
-low = nurture important
-high = power important
short-term vs. long-term orientation
-low = traditional and short-term
-high = futuristic and long-term
restraint vs. indulgence
-low = normative repression
-high = satisfaction is good
Giving Voice to Values (GVV) Approach
approach to ethics and morality that is not about analyzing the right or wrong thing to do in every situation
making normative ethical decisions based on objective rules; maintains that some things are always right and some things are always wrong
says that nothing is intrinsically right or wrong; belief that everyone should be tolerant towards others' beliefs and views; this idea for freedom of speech implies that there are no 'real' absolute truths
universal values everyone shares; freedom, justice, respect, compassion
people who give more than they receive; not looking for someone to reciprocate; create value for themselves and others
people who take more than give; claim value for themselves
people who are score-keepers; concerned about reciprocity (favor for a favor); transactional
one factor givers seem to need in order to realize success
Social media, teamwork, and rise of service economy
What 3 aspects of our world today shorten the time horizon for givers to realize success?
job satisfaction (feelings people have toward their job)
most important job attitude
organizational commitment (dedication to organization themselves)
second most important job attitude
psychological contract breach
Violation of the unwritten understanding between the employee and the organization regarding expectations.
the degree to which an employee successfully fulfills the factors included in the job description
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB)
voluntary behaviors employees perform to help others and benefit the organization
the investment of an employee's physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance
our opinions, beliefs, and feelings about aspects of our environment
an unwritten understanding about what the employee will bring to the work environment and what the company will provide in exchange
a condition where people have strong links and fit with their organization and job, thus leaving would entail a large number of sacrifices
employee departure from an organization; voluntary or involuntary termination
general mental ability
refers to our reasoning abilities, verbal and numerical skills, analytical skills, and overall intelligence level
what leads to positive/negative job attitudes
perceived fairness of outcome (equity)
perceived fairness of decision-making processes (consistent, accurate, open to input)
perceived truthfulness and adequacy of explanations
perceived respect in enactment of decisions
types of organizational justice
distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice
they CAN and often do (they wouldn't for ex. if you hate your job but the economy is bad and you must stay with job)
do positive job attitudes lead to higher performance and positive work behaviors through increased engagement at work
in-role and extra-role performance
what are the 2 types of positive work behaviors
activities employees perform that are explicitly indicated in job description; could be objective (number of something produced) or subjective (effort contributed); what is typically covered in performance reviews
discretionary behaviors employees perform to help others and benefit the organization (aka organizational citizenship behaviors or OCBs); can be job related (showing up early) or interpersonally directed (helping coworker w/ personal problem)
Counterproductive workplace behaviors (CWB)
abusing others (rumors, harassment, etc.), production deviance, theft, sabotage, withdrawal (long lunch breaks, etc.)
intentional poor performance
-voice (active/constructive attempts to improve conditions)
-loyalty (passively waiting for improvements)
-neglect (allowing conditions to worsen...CWBS fall in this category)
how can employees can express negative attitudes/dissatisfaction?
another option to fix CWBS is to create a culture that values ___
one option to fix CWBs; monitoring is easy w/ the ubiquity of technology; potential downsides = privacy violation & mistrust; a study showed that monitoring is seen as less unfair when used to give constructive face-to-face feedback
psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-oriented behavior; one of the most critical jobs of leaders
principles of motivation deal with _____ and NOT performance
________ = effort X ability X environment
-lack of situational constraints to translate into performance
motivation/effort requires...(2 things)?
being driven by positive feelings associated with doing well on a task or job
motivation caused by the desire to attain specific outcomes
Need-based and process-based
What are the two theories of motivation?
hierarchy of needs (Maslow) two-factor (Herzberg)
equity theory and expectancy theory
what are the two types of process-based motivation?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization
A need referring to Maslow's esteem and self-actualization.
A need corresponding to Maslow's physiological and safety needs.
the removal of rewards following negative behavior
A need corresponding to Maslow's social needs.
individuals who expect to receive a lot without giving much in return
individuals who give w/o waiting to receive in return
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors - work satisfaction from so-called motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from so-called hygiene factors
factors that are extrinsic to the job such as company policies and working conditions
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) and Two-Factor (Herzberg)
what are the two types of need-based motivation?
Equity theory of motivation
main argument: individuals engage in comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes; perceived inequities are demotivating; procedural justice, interactional justice, and distributive justice lead to to theory of motivation
self outcomes/inputs = others outcomes/inputs
a person we compare ourselves to in equity theory
self outcomes/inputs > others outcomes/inputs
self outcomes/inputs < others outcomes/inputs
main argument: people choose how to behave from alternative courses of action, based on expectations of gains for each action; perceived EFFORT --> perceived PERFORMANCE-reward probability --> perceived value of REWARD
Inequity (apart of equity theory)
Strategies for Resolution of _______
-alter your inputs
-alter your outcomes
-alter perceptions of inputs or outcomes
-alter (perceptions of) comparison to other's inputs or outcomes
-change who is used as a comparison other
Effort --> Performance link
managerial implication; give people the skills they need; remove barriers to performance; provide encouragement
Performance --> reward link
managerial implication; reward people for good work; stay consistent and true to your word; figure out what rewards are desirable to people
the takeaway from process theories are that equity is very important to employees and ______ are a powerful driver of motivated behavior
Yes (reaction changed to ask "why" after being rejected); change represents two goal orientations
In Jia Jiang's TED Talk, he sought out rejection for 100 days to desensitize himself to the pain and shame of rejection. Did his reactions to rejection/failure change over time?
performance goal orientation
Type of goal orientation:
-goal = demonstrate competence/ ability
-implicit theory of knowledge ability is fixed at birth
-task preference is easy w/ very little chance of failure
-point of comparison is others (be the best)
-diagnosis of failure/rejection is seen as an inherent feature of myself
-reaction is failure/rejection is to avoid and withdraw all effortt
learning goal orientation
Type of goal orientation:
-goal = master a new task, self-improvement
-implicit theory of knowledge is developed throughout life
-task preference is challenging w/ possibility of failure
-point of comparison is one's own past performance (be better than I was before)
-diagnosis of failure/rejection is a feature of the context, situation, or person
-reaction to failure/rejection is to approach it and try harder
negative _______ ______ results in poorer performance the majority of the time
how to give a negative performance feedback
-be mindful of others' goal orientations
-emphasize processes, not outcomes
-compare within individuals, not across
(managerial implication apart of goal orientations)
everyone would want to take on new challenges (be more motivated in the face of failure) but sometimes failure is a signal you should change course; external goals and metrics do matter
Would organizations be better off if everyone had a learning goal orientation?
The degree to which the person believes that performance is related to secondary outcomes such as rewards
Main issues of _______:
-getting good measures of performance
-ensuring that rewards send the right message (on criteria or one's performance)
-ensuring perception of fairness between actual outcome (distributive justice) and the evaluation process (procedural and interpersonal justice)
Pros of pay-for-performance
-measurable over time
-can compare to other employees
-$ generally valued
-reinforces a particular performance metric
Cons of pay-for-performance
-potential for perceived unfairness
-often hard to define & measure performance
-not every values $ (the most)
-may be difficult to link performance & outcomes over a 1 year period
-extrinsic motivation can cause people to lose intrinsic motivation
-employees don't do what they're not rewarded for
pay-for-performance guidelines for employees
guideline; provide employees with clear & specific performance criteria & making sure employees have control over performance outcomes (effort leads to performance)
pay-for-performance guidelines for allocating rewards
guideline; reward should differentiate between high & low performers & personal non-performance factors should play NO role in rewards
bottom line for pay-for-performance is to make sure people have other reasons to perform well b/c 2 much emphasis on ____ is almost always destructive
____ can motivate helping behavior when performance criteria are highly subjective
employee empowerment, job design, and goal-setting
changing the content and/or process of a specific job to increase job satisfaction and performance
putting more variety into a job
moving employees form one specialized job to another
putting more responsibility and authority into a job; a job redesign technique allowing workers more control over how they perform their own tasks
giving employees the opportunity to add, emphasize, or redesign tasks, relationships, and/or perceptions using their unique motives, strengths, and passions; especially important in rapidly change environments, and for people who expect meaningful work
Breaking down tasks to their simplest components and assigning them to employees so that each person would perform few tasks in a repetitive manner.
Job Characteristic Model
five core job dimensions, leading to three critical psychological states, which lead to work-related outcomes
growth need strength
the degree to which a person has higher order needs, such as self-esteem and self-actualization
the degree to which a person is in charge of completing an identifiable piece of work from start to finish
autonomy & empowering employees
change the company structure so that employees have more power on their jobs; provide employees with access to information about things that affect their work; instill a climate where managers do not routinely step in and take over
A goal that is Specific, Measurable, Aggressive, Realistic, and Time-bound
your ranking depends on how your objective performance (test grade) compares with the rest of the students' grades in your class
each employee is assessed individually w/o enforcing a comparison with his colleagues or other employees in the industry
defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience; can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods
-caused by specific event
-very brief in duration
-specific and numerous in nature
-usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions
-action oriented in nature
-cause is often general and unclear
-last longer than emotions
-more general (two main dimensions--positive affect and negative effect--that are comprised of multiple specific emotions)
-generally not indicated by distinct expressions
-cognitive in nature
-high/low pleasantness = ____
-high/low activation = ____
positive affect and negative effect
how to classify moods (2 classifications)
idea that at zero input (i.e. when nothing is going on) most individuals experience a mildly positive mood
how people can understand each other more completely by becoming more aware of their own and others' emotions
paying complete attention to one's feelings without reaction or judgement
leads to better performance through motivation and emotional contagion; better decision making, creativity, prosocial behavior
the spread of emotions from one person to another/throughout a group of people (employee to customer, supervisor to supervisee)
emotional intelligence (EQ)
Components of _____ _____:
accurately recognizing and perceiving one's own emotions
ability to regulate and direct emotions in a positive way when needed (e.g. surface and deep acting)
accurately understanding how others are feeling
ability to help others manage their emotions (or, manipulate others' emotions)
attempting to influence the experience and display of your emotions
changing the emotion you feel
change the emotion you display (putting on a mask)
projecting one emotion while simultaneously feeling another
attempting to feel or express organizationally desired emotions at work (organization-specific case of emotion regulation)
alignment between internal sense of self and outward behavior, or being your "true self' at work (not necessarily being your whole self)
associated with well-being and work engagement
associated with image and career outcomes
surface acting leads to emotional dissonance which leads to ___?
a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation
deep acting through cognitive reframing and refocsuing leads to emotional alignment which leads to ___?
empathy, compassion; a process of changing an individual's perceptions of stress by reassessing a situation and replacing irrational beliefs.
focus on bigger purpose of your job or something else entirely
Demands > Resources
Burnout = ____ > ______ ?
physiological outcomes of stress
headaches, irritability, fatigue, skin conditions, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbances
psychological outcomes of stress
depression and anxiety
work outcomes from stress
negative job attitudes, absenteeism
Stress that challenges and helps increase focus; leads to performance
Stress that limits the ability to perform
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