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are the raw materials chemicalsor organisms , plant utilities and labor to make a product


are the product and waste that result from the process steps

batch process

starts and stops a fixed amount of material is processed to completion and then another is started

continious process

runs all the time as long as inputs are avalible

seperation and purification

the product is seperated from the waste for the product to reach the correct level of purity it may take several applications

chemical reactions

typically produce an output that contains both product and waste


converts the bulk product to the form needed by the customer example liquid to granular

growth medium

a broth or soup that nourishes the cells

mass and energy balance

calculations to obtain the actual yield of the reaction

material compatibility

certain types of process fluids interact with particular construction materials so the material used to construct a piece of equipment must be appropriate for the fluid to come in contact with

4 basic types of equipment

tanks , piping , pumps and valves


anything that flows even solids


paddles , propellers or blades that turn on a shaft to mix tank ingredients


vertical plates attached to the tank's interior sides to improve mixing by causing turbulance

cooling or heating coils

coils or tubes mounted inside the tank used to heat or cool contents of the tank


a partial double wall around the tank that creates a hollow space where heating and cooling fluid can flow

inspection port

clear glass built into the side of the tank at eye level to allow viewing of the contents

manway hatch

allows a technician to enter the tank to clean or inspect it

rupture disc

saftey device built into the tank to prevent it from blowing up

sampling ports

small pipes with valves used to take samples of tank contents


tubes with tiny holes in them that bubble gas into the tank

spray balls

devices like showerheads used to clean the inside of a tank

inlet outlet valves

control fluid flow into or out of the tank


openings built into the top of the tank through which gases escape to relieve pressure fitted with filters to prevent cotaminants from entering or leaving the tank

transfer panel

is a connection point wher the pipes from several tanks or other sources come together

centrifugal pump

use centrifugal force to move liquid . must be primed generally used in high volume , low pressure applications . Can handle liquids that contain solids or slurries will not handle thick liquids

positive displacement pump

move fluid by picking it up in specific amounts and moving it forward to deliver fluid at high pressure even when flow rates are low . To deliver precise amounts of fluid . Turning on with discharge side valve off will destroy this pump


are fluid movers in a process


the formation of gas pockets in a flowing liquid caused by high temp , low suction , high viscosity , high pump speed

rotary positive displacement pumps

lobe , gear , vane , screw , peristaltic

suction pressure or suction head

is the total pressure on the up stream side of the pump

discharge pressure or discharge head

is the total pressure on the down stream side of the pump

flow control element

controls the flow by its position , fits tightly into the valve seat to stop flow , in some valves is called disc , ball , needle , plug , diaphram , or other term .

on off valves

ball , plug , butterfly and gate

throttling valves

globe and diaphragm

check valve

allows fluid to go in one direction

relief valve

when fluid reaches a preset pressure the valve opens to relieve pressure

static seals

seal connections between non moving parts

dynamic seals

seals connections between moving parts

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