APUSH frequently asked questions
Terms in this set (59)
Particularly in the years after 1630, Puritans left for New England supporting the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other settlements
Motive for settling Virginia
But what started out as failed colonies on Roanoake Island, turned to success at Jamestown in Virginia. What made this a sucess was the religious wars in England - Catholic Kings James 1 and his son Charles 1 only incited protestant and jesuit complaints against the monarchy. Searching for peace against the tyrannical Charles 1, people fled England for the new world.
1st Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, from 1725-1770
Albany Congress 1754
Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the French.
Legal Rights for Women (Colonial Era)
Before a woman reached 25 years of age, she was expected to be married with at least one child. Most, if not all, domestic tasks were performed by women, and most domestic goods and food were prepared and created by women.
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Slavery in Pre-Independence Times
The first slaves used by Europeans in what later became United States territory were among Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's colonization attempt of North Carolina in 1526. The attempt was a failure, lasting only one year; the slaves revolted and fled into the wilderness to live among the Cofitachiqui people
Proclomation of 1763
law created by British officials that prohibited colonists from settling in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains
Articles of Conferderation
plan of government adopted by the Continental Congress after the American Revolution; established "a firm league of friendship" among the states, but allowed few important powers to the central government
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Founding Fathers Attitudes Toward Political Parties
They did not really expect the emergence of political parties
Hamilton's Economic Plan
federalist plan for americans economic growth, which laid the groundwork for america's industrialization, four step plan to build the nation's economy and pay down revolutionary war debts
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
The purchase of French land between the Missippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US, Bought the west from France - Napoleon Bonaparte- Lousiana for 10 million West for 15 million dollars
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
1793, an American who invented the cotton gin. Hand operated at first, sped up removal of seeds from the raw cotton fiber. Made American cotton a more viable alternative to Indian cotton for British textile manufacturers -> increase in cotton textiles (& also in importance of slave labor in southern United States). (1765-1825),
Henry Clay's "American System"
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country's transporation system, developing transportation systems and other internal improvements, establishing a protective tariff and resurrecting the national bank
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles -to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Tariff of Abomination
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North because it put a high tax on imported goods
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
1857. Determined that people of African descent, imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendents, wether or not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States. Also, that the United States Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories, slaves could not bring a case to court, and that slaves could not be taken from their owners without due process. Superseded by 13th and 14th Amendments.
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government, people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Douglas's Freeport Doctrine
The Freeport Doctrine was articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the majority decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from U.S. territories since Douglas professed great respect for Supreme Court decisions, and accused the Republicans of disrespecting the court, yet this aspect of the Dred Scott decision was contrary to Douglas' views and politically unpopular in Illinois.
Primary Cause of Civil War
With Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor, i.e. slaves. Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order.
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Was a period in United States history, 1863-1877, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization, the idea that churches should address social issues, predicting that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
Tabloid journalists and newspapers that reported sensationalist stories with a strong emotional component., also called yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time of the Spanish American war. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Du Bois and Booker T.Washington
Dubois believed in political agitation, that you could not have social and economic rights unless you had political rights to defend them.
Washington believed that economic progress was sufficient, and that in other areas (segregation and political repression) blacks could tolerate inequality.
journalists and reporters from the progressive era who wrote about the corruption, dirt and crime of american culture and society
Germanys Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchantmen without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (commonly known as "cruiser rules"). Cruiser rules demand submarines surface and search merchantmen, and place crews in "a place of safety" (for which lifeboats did not qualify, except under particular circumstances) before sinking them, unless the ship in question showed "persistent refusal to stop...or active resistance to visit or search".
Wilson's 14 Points
January 8,1918. Was a set of idealistic goals for peace. 1. no more secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas was to be maintained 3. a removal of economic barriers among nations4. reduction of arms 5, adjustment of cononial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers 6. "self determination" or independence for oppressed minority groups who would choose their govt 7. a legue of nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and sttle world disputes
Bonus Army 1932
group of jobless World War I veterans who came to Washington to lobby Congress for immediate payment of money promised them in 1945; Hoover opposed payment, and when he used the U.S. Army to drive the veterans out of the capital, he was portrayed as cruel and cold-hearted.
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Greensboro, NC - 4 students defy segregation, sit at segregated lunch counters in department store, then more show up, 4th day 300 show up; they are arrested and beat; continues until they allow it..it spread to other cities (FSU and famu even took part here)
Civil Rights Acts 1960
commission on civil rights to attempt to guarantee the ballot to blacks; showed government's changing views of race relations
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
an alleged attack by N. Vietnamese Navy on US destroyers which led Pres. Johnson to order a direct bombing attack on North Vietnam(most historians now believe there was no attack)
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Tet Offensive 1968
series of Communist attacks on 44 South Vietnamese cities; although the Viet Cong suffered a major defeat, the attacks ended the American view that the war was winnable and destroyed the nation's will to escalate the war further.
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.