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Richard Arkwright

The Water Frame 1768
used water to power a spinning frame to spin thread faster
weather dependent
leads to the development of the factory system

James Watt and the Steam Engine

patented in 1769
used less coal then previous steam engine
enabled factories to be away from rivers
1776 pumped water from mines
became prime mover of all industry


1811 - 1816
led attacks on the power looms
inspired by Ned Ludd (fictional)
opposed machinery taking their jobs

Factory Act of 1833

set a minimum on child labor, hours and wages
in response to Thomas Malthus and Karl Marx

Poor Law of 1834

set up more poor houses where poor could work and earn a living
"indoor relief"

Adam Smith

The Wealth of Nations
modern economics and capitalism is based off of him

Thomas Malthus

population will exceed food supply
war disease and famine control population
poor people should have less children
food supply will then keep up

David Ricardo and Iron Law of Wages

keep wages down to keep populations down
wages are high, more children are born
more children create a larger work force that depresses wages

Jeremy Bentham, Utilitarians

Greatest good for the greatest number of people
government should intervene and provide some social safety net
tried to pass a new poor law and make poverty undesirable

Utopian Socialists

ideal utopias, perfect community
history is the result of class conflict
benefit everyone
questioned capitalism
Count St. Simone: lazy people were poor
Owenism factories with fairly treated workers
worker union: Grand National Union

Karl Marx and Communism

communism (communist manifesto)
based on science
calls for a revolution


lower class citizen
Marx believed they would overthrow the means of production and take control

Crimean War

1854 - 1856
russia claimed protectorship over orthodox christians in ottoman empire
paved way towards unification
congress of vienna tried to continue conservatism
austria and russia weakened, germany and Italy could unify
ottoman, G.Britan, France, Piedmont sardinia


gets news coverage by correspondents
most important battle


1854 - 1855
during Crimean war

Florence Nightingale

1820 - 1910
effector made to care for wounded
bring medicine and hospitals to the battle field

Treaty of Paris 1856

no Russian or Ottomans in the Black Sea
respect political integrity of Ottomans
Russia gave up Molachia and Moldova
Great Britain, France, Ottomans and Austria benefiitted
Russia lost out
COnservatism reigning supreme

Count Cavour

Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia
the braid of Italian nationalist leaders

Giuseppe Garibaldi

the sword or military

Giuseppe Mazzini

the heart
1848 created Rome republic with Garibaldi, failed

King Victor Emmanuel II

leader and political of Piedmont


the resurgence of the Italian Unification movement

Austro-Sardinian War

France received Savoy and Nice
Magenta and Solferino - victory for Piedmont and France
Lombardy goes to Piedmont, Venita stays with Austria

Red Shirts

Garibaldi and his red shirts or army came from the south
he unites with Cavour, not attacking Rome
Kingdom of 2 Sicilies falls,
when united armies attack Rome, french troops protect Pope
worried about War with French army
Victor Emmanuel I was named new king of Italy


German customs union established by removing internal customs barriers
Germany was held back from unification by France and Russia
industrial and nationalistic

Otto Von Bismark

Prussian origin
wanted a unified germany under Prussian control
real politik
make and break alliances to achieve goals

Danish War

war over 2 states: Schlesswig and Holstein
Austria and Prussia defeat the Danish

Austro-Prussian War/Seven Weeks war

Bismark wants both Schlesswig and Holstein
German states remain uninvolved
Prussia wins
Italy gains Venita
Prussian military is very advanced
biggest battle: Sadowa/koniggratz

Northern German Confederation

Bismark created it
was controlled by Prussia
democratic setup with senate houses
Reichstag had universal male suffrage

Peace of Prague


Ems Dispatch

in 1868, Leopold, a Hohenzollern claimed Spanish throne
Spanish revolted and Leopold withdrew his claim
Bismark edited a dispatched telegram to France to make it seem as if Kaiser Wilhelm had insulter Napoleon III

Franco-Prussian War

Russians put ships in the Black Sea
southern German states didn't want French control over them
Battle of Sedan
Napoleon III was taken prisoner of Prussians
Paris was under siege for 4 months

Treaty of Frankfurt

Third French Empire was created
Italians made Rome the capital
Russia put warships in the black sea again since the Crimean war
France had to pay a lot of $
France gave Alsace-Lorraine to Germany

Compromise of 1867: Dual Monarchy

Ausgleich: Alliance of German Austrians and Hungarian Magyars
each had own Parliament and constitution but shared army and leader

Tsar Alexander II

1855 - 1881
defeated n Crimean war,
EMANCIPATED Russian serfs 1861 - 1863
half of noble land owning went to them, but serfs had to pay back nobles for land
Polish Rebellion in 1863, so he gave up his campaign there
tried to westernize the legal system

Tsar Alexander III

1881 - 1894
slavophile : supports salvic people
Jewish people forced to migrate to the Pale
resistance to liberal
did not undo old reforms made by Alexander II
Loves Russian culture

Russification Program

Russian is being taught, traditional dress is beingn worn, culture embraced, etc

Slavophile vs. Westernizer

slavophile: support Slavic culture and allow it to flourish
westernizer: conform to the western world, modernize and industrialize

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