38 terms

Mid to Late 19th Century Europe

Richard Arkwright
The Water Frame 1768
used water to power a spinning frame to spin thread faster
weather dependent
leads to the development of the factory system
James Watt and the Steam Engine
patented in 1769
used less coal then previous steam engine
enabled factories to be away from rivers
1776 pumped water from mines
became prime mover of all industry
1811 - 1816
led attacks on the power looms
inspired by Ned Ludd (fictional)
opposed machinery taking their jobs
Factory Act of 1833
set a minimum on child labor, hours and wages
in response to Thomas Malthus and Karl Marx
Poor Law of 1834
set up more poor houses where poor could work and earn a living
"indoor relief"
Adam Smith
The Wealth of Nations
modern economics and capitalism is based off of him
Thomas Malthus
population will exceed food supply
war disease and famine control population
poor people should have less children
food supply will then keep up
David Ricardo and Iron Law of Wages
keep wages down to keep populations down
wages are high, more children are born
more children create a larger work force that depresses wages
Jeremy Bentham, Utilitarians
Greatest good for the greatest number of people
government should intervene and provide some social safety net
tried to pass a new poor law and make poverty undesirable
Utopian Socialists
ideal utopias, perfect community
history is the result of class conflict
benefit everyone
questioned capitalism
Count St. Simone: lazy people were poor
Owenism factories with fairly treated workers
worker union: Grand National Union
Karl Marx and Communism
communism (communist manifesto)
based on science
calls for a revolution
lower class citizen
Marx believed they would overthrow the means of production and take control
Crimean War
1854 - 1856
russia claimed protectorship over orthodox christians in ottoman empire
paved way towards unification
congress of vienna tried to continue conservatism
austria and russia weakened, germany and Italy could unify
ottoman, G.Britan, France, Piedmont sardinia
gets news coverage by correspondents
most important battle
1854 - 1855
during Crimean war
Florence Nightingale
1820 - 1910
effector made to care for wounded
bring medicine and hospitals to the battle field
Treaty of Paris 1856
no Russian or Ottomans in the Black Sea
respect political integrity of Ottomans
Russia gave up Molachia and Moldova
Great Britain, France, Ottomans and Austria benefiitted
Russia lost out
COnservatism reigning supreme
Count Cavour
Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia
the braid of Italian nationalist leaders
Giuseppe Garibaldi
the sword or military
Giuseppe Mazzini
the heart
1848 created Rome republic with Garibaldi, failed
King Victor Emmanuel II
leader and political of Piedmont
the resurgence of the Italian Unification movement
Austro-Sardinian War
France received Savoy and Nice
Magenta and Solferino - victory for Piedmont and France
Lombardy goes to Piedmont, Venita stays with Austria
Red Shirts
Garibaldi and his red shirts or army came from the south
he unites with Cavour, not attacking Rome
Kingdom of 2 Sicilies falls,
when united armies attack Rome, french troops protect Pope
worried about War with French army
Victor Emmanuel I was named new king of Italy
German customs union established by removing internal customs barriers
Germany was held back from unification by France and Russia
industrial and nationalistic
Otto Von Bismark
Prussian origin
wanted a unified germany under Prussian control
real politik
make and break alliances to achieve goals
Danish War
war over 2 states: Schlesswig and Holstein
Austria and Prussia defeat the Danish
Austro-Prussian War/Seven Weeks war
Bismark wants both Schlesswig and Holstein
German states remain uninvolved
Prussia wins
Italy gains Venita
Prussian military is very advanced
biggest battle: Sadowa/koniggratz
Northern German Confederation
Bismark created it
was controlled by Prussia
democratic setup with senate houses
Reichstag had universal male suffrage
Peace of Prague
Ems Dispatch
in 1868, Leopold, a Hohenzollern claimed Spanish throne
Spanish revolted and Leopold withdrew his claim
Bismark edited a dispatched telegram to France to make it seem as if Kaiser Wilhelm had insulter Napoleon III
Franco-Prussian War
Russians put ships in the Black Sea
southern German states didn't want French control over them
Battle of Sedan
Napoleon III was taken prisoner of Prussians
Paris was under siege for 4 months
Treaty of Frankfurt
Third French Empire was created
Italians made Rome the capital
Russia put warships in the black sea again since the Crimean war
France had to pay a lot of $
France gave Alsace-Lorraine to Germany
Compromise of 1867: Dual Monarchy
Ausgleich: Alliance of German Austrians and Hungarian Magyars
each had own Parliament and constitution but shared army and leader
Tsar Alexander II
1855 - 1881
defeated n Crimean war,
EMANCIPATED Russian serfs 1861 - 1863
half of noble land owning went to them, but serfs had to pay back nobles for land
Polish Rebellion in 1863, so he gave up his campaign there
tried to westernize the legal system
Tsar Alexander III
1881 - 1894
slavophile : supports salvic people
Jewish people forced to migrate to the Pale
resistance to liberal
did not undo old reforms made by Alexander II
Loves Russian culture
Russification Program
Russian is being taught, traditional dress is beingn worn, culture embraced, etc
Slavophile vs. Westernizer
slavophile: support Slavic culture and allow it to flourish
westernizer: conform to the western world, modernize and industrialize