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What is one thing the blood does not produce?

plasma hormone

Hct is what % of the total blood volume?


What substance is not found in plasma


What is considered the most abundant protein in plasma?


When does tissue become edematous?

when there is a dietary protein dificiency

Where does myeloid hemopoiesis in adults happen?

in the red bone marrow

What do erythrocytes serve to transport?

o2 to the body and co2 back to the lungs

Where do RBC's die?

spleen and liver

What is a common cause of anemia?

renal insufficiency

What is erythropoisis and where does it happen?

formation of RBC's in the kidney

What is homeostasis?

the cessation of bleeding

Where are the majority of clotting factors made?


What do neutrophils do?

increase in response to bacterial infections

What performs the work of the heart?


What works as the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat?

SA Node

HTN is considered a chronic resting BP at...


What is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle?

SA node -> AV node -> AV bundle -> purkinje fibers -> cardiocyte in left ventricle

What is the term used for any abnormal cardiac rhythm?


CHF causes what?

systemic edema in the right ventricle

Kussmaul resperations

deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal DM

What causes varicose veins?

failure of the venus valves

What controls blood vessels throughout the body?

the vasometer center of the madulla oblongata

Hypovolemic shock

produced by loss of blood volume as a result of hemorrhage, trauma, bleeding ulcers, burns, and dehydration

Septic shock

occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permiability

Myocardial Infarction can lead to what?

cardiogenic shock

What is a pyrogen?

causes fever

What does the tymus do with age?


What would be most harmful for a 1 yr. old to have removed.

Thymus because they would no longer have an immune system

T cell acheive immunocompetence in what?


The serum used for emergency treatment for a snake bite stimulates what?

artificial passive immunity

What does HIV mainly target?

helper T cells

Most common allergies are the result of what?

Type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity

A person who has HIV that has a helper T cell count lower than ______ has AIDS?

200 cells/uL

What is hypernatremia?

plasma sodium concentration above normal

What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?


What is not a function of the respiratory system?

synthesis of vasodialators

The upper respiratory tract extends from ____ to ____?

nose, larnyx

A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with what?

hyperbaric oxygen

Each Hgb molecule can transport up to ___ o2 molecules


What is the term for deficiency of o2 or the inability to utalize o2 in a tissue?


What is the lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy, and hypersecretion?

Chronic bronchitis

What happens with TB?

The lungs are infected with mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis

What organ system does not excrete waste?


What is not a function of the kidneys

They don't secrete waste into the blood stream

How many nephrons does the average adult have per kidney?

1.2 million

Where is blood plasma filtered?

the renal corpuscle

In a healthy kidney, very little _____ is filtered by the glomerulus?


Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the______ to form angiotensin 1


What is a direct result of ADH?

decreased urine volume

Normal urine in a healthy person should not have what in it?


A renal calculus (stone) can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it still would not obstruct what organ?

urinary bladder

What is the muscle in the bladder?

ditrusor muscle

ADH does what?

promotes water conservation

Most body water comes from _____ and is lost in _____

drinking; urine

What is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?


What nutrient can only be absorbed when digested?


What is not a necessary organ of the digestive system?


In what compartment would fluid accumulate in, in edema?

interstitial space

How many teeth do infants and adults have?

infants - 20, adults - 32

From superficial to deep, what are the structures found in a typical tooth?

enamel, dentin, pulp

Where is the swallowing center located?

medulla oblongata

Acid reflex into the esophagus in normally prevented by what?

lower esophageal sphincter

____ is screted by _____ which is necessary for B12 absorption.

intrisic factor; parietal cells

The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is what?


What synthesizes bile acids while metabolizing cholesterol?


Fat should account for how much of the daily caloric intake?


Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______ wheras protein digestion begins in the _______

mouth; stomach

What are the 3 most abundant classes of nutrients?

proteins, fats, carbohydrates

Bacterial flora does not carry out digesting most of what?

proteins we get in the diet

Defecation is stimulated by what?

stretching of the rectum

Macronutrients include what?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water

___ yields about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, wheras _____ yields about 9 kcal/g

proteins and carbohydrates; fats

Heat exhaustion results from what?

extreme loss of electrolytes in sweating

What constitutes bad cholesterol?


Most protein in the body is found where?

muscular system

What vitamin dificiency is most common world wide?

vitamin A

Most of the body's fat is stored as what?


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