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77 terms

A&P final

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What is one thing the blood does not produce?
plasma hormone
Hct is what % of the total blood volume?
37-52%
What substance is not found in plasma
Hgb
What is considered the most abundant protein in plasma?
albumin
When does tissue become edematous?
when there is a dietary protein dificiency
Where does myeloid hemopoiesis in adults happen?
in the red bone marrow
What do erythrocytes serve to transport?
o2 to the body and co2 back to the lungs
Where do RBC's die?
spleen and liver
What is a common cause of anemia?
renal insufficiency
What is erythropoisis and where does it happen?
formation of RBC's in the kidney
What is homeostasis?
the cessation of bleeding
Where are the majority of clotting factors made?
Liver
What do neutrophils do?
increase in response to bacterial infections
What performs the work of the heart?
myocardium
What works as the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat?
SA Node
HTN is considered a chronic resting BP at...
140/90
What is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle?
SA node -> AV node -> AV bundle -> purkinje fibers -> cardiocyte in left ventricle
What is the term used for any abnormal cardiac rhythm?
arrhythmia
CHF causes what?
systemic edema in the right ventricle
Kussmaul resperations
deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal DM
What causes varicose veins?
failure of the venus valves
What controls blood vessels throughout the body?
the vasometer center of the madulla oblongata
Hypovolemic shock
produced by loss of blood volume as a result of hemorrhage, trauma, bleeding ulcers, burns, and dehydration
Septic shock
occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permiability
Myocardial Infarction can lead to what?
cardiogenic shock
What is a pyrogen?
causes fever
What does the tymus do with age?
degenerates
What would be most harmful for a 1 yr. old to have removed.
Thymus because they would no longer have an immune system
T cell acheive immunocompetence in what?
Thymus
The serum used for emergency treatment for a snake bite stimulates what?
artificial passive immunity
What does HIV mainly target?
helper T cells
Most common allergies are the result of what?
Type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity
A person who has HIV that has a helper T cell count lower than ______ has AIDS?
200 cells/uL
What is hypernatremia?
plasma sodium concentration above normal
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
sodium
What is not a function of the respiratory system?
synthesis of vasodialators
The upper respiratory tract extends from ____ to ____?
nose, larnyx
A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with what?
hyperbaric oxygen
Each Hgb molecule can transport up to ___ o2 molecules
4
What is the term for deficiency of o2 or the inability to utalize o2 in a tissue?
hypoxia
What is the lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy, and hypersecretion?
Chronic bronchitis
What happens with TB?
The lungs are infected with mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis
What organ system does not excrete waste?
cardiovascular
What is not a function of the kidneys
They don't secrete waste into the blood stream
How many nephrons does the average adult have per kidney?
1.2 million
Where is blood plasma filtered?
the renal corpuscle
In a healthy kidney, very little _____ is filtered by the glomerulus?
protein
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the______ to form angiotensin 1
liver
What is a direct result of ADH?
decreased urine volume
Normal urine in a healthy person should not have what in it?
glucose
A renal calculus (stone) can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it still would not obstruct what organ?
urinary bladder
What is the muscle in the bladder?
ditrusor muscle
ADH does what?
promotes water conservation
Most body water comes from _____ and is lost in _____
drinking; urine
What is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?
absorption
What nutrient can only be absorbed when digested?
proteins
What is not a necessary organ of the digestive system?
spleen
In what compartment would fluid accumulate in, in edema?
interstitial space
How many teeth do infants and adults have?
infants - 20, adults - 32
From superficial to deep, what are the structures found in a typical tooth?
enamel, dentin, pulp
Where is the swallowing center located?
medulla oblongata
Acid reflex into the esophagus in normally prevented by what?
lower esophageal sphincter
____ is screted by _____ which is necessary for B12 absorption.
intrisic factor; parietal cells
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is what?
Liver
What synthesizes bile acids while metabolizing cholesterol?
Liver
Fat should account for how much of the daily caloric intake?
30%
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______ wheras protein digestion begins in the _______
mouth; stomach
What are the 3 most abundant classes of nutrients?
proteins, fats, carbohydrates
Bacterial flora does not carry out digesting most of what?
proteins we get in the diet
Defecation is stimulated by what?
stretching of the rectum
Macronutrients include what?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
___ yields about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, wheras _____ yields about 9 kcal/g
proteins and carbohydrates; fats
Heat exhaustion results from what?
extreme loss of electrolytes in sweating
What constitutes bad cholesterol?
LDL
Most protein in the body is found where?
muscular system
What vitamin dificiency is most common world wide?
vitamin A
Most of the body's fat is stored as what?
Tryglicerides