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What is 1 + 3?
What is one thing the blood does not produce?
Hct is what % of the total blood volume?
What substance is not found in plasma
What is considered the most abundant protein in plasma?
When does tissue become edematous?
when there is a dietary protein dificiency
Where does myeloid hemopoiesis in adults happen?
in the red bone marrow
What do erythrocytes serve to transport?
o2 to the body and co2 back to the lungs
Where do RBC's die?
spleen and liver
What is a common cause of anemia?
What is erythropoisis and where does it happen?
formation of RBC's in the kidney
What is homeostasis?
the cessation of bleeding
Where are the majority of clotting factors made?
What do neutrophils do?
increase in response to bacterial infections
What performs the work of the heart?
What works as the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat?
HTN is considered a chronic resting BP at...
What is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle?
SA node -> AV node -> AV bundle -> purkinje fibers -> cardiocyte in left ventricle
What is the term used for any abnormal cardiac rhythm?
CHF causes what?
systemic edema in the right ventricle
deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal DM
What causes varicose veins?
failure of the venus valves
What controls blood vessels throughout the body?
the vasometer center of the madulla oblongata
produced by loss of blood volume as a result of hemorrhage, trauma, bleeding ulcers, burns, and dehydration
occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permiability
Myocardial Infarction can lead to what?
What is a pyrogen?
What does the tymus do with age?
What would be most harmful for a 1 yr. old to have removed.
Thymus because they would no longer have an immune system
T cell acheive immunocompetence in what?
The serum used for emergency treatment for a snake bite stimulates what?
artificial passive immunity
What does HIV mainly target?
helper T cells
Most common allergies are the result of what?
Type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity
A person who has HIV that has a helper T cell count lower than ______ has AIDS?
What is hypernatremia?
plasma sodium concentration above normal
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
What is not a function of the respiratory system?
synthesis of vasodialators
The upper respiratory tract extends from ____ to ____?
A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with what?
Each Hgb molecule can transport up to ___ o2 molecules
What is the term for deficiency of o2 or the inability to utalize o2 in a tissue?
What is the lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy, and hypersecretion?
What happens with TB?
The lungs are infected with mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis
What organ system does not excrete waste?
What is not a function of the kidneys
They don't secrete waste into the blood stream
How many nephrons does the average adult have per kidney?
Where is blood plasma filtered?
the renal corpuscle
In a healthy kidney, very little _____ is filtered by the glomerulus?
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the______ to form angiotensin 1
What is a direct result of ADH?
decreased urine volume
Normal urine in a healthy person should not have what in it?
A renal calculus (stone) can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it still would not obstruct what organ?
What is the muscle in the bladder?
ADH does what?
promotes water conservation
Most body water comes from _____ and is lost in _____
What is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?
What nutrient can only be absorbed when digested?
What is not a necessary organ of the digestive system?
In what compartment would fluid accumulate in, in edema?
How many teeth do infants and adults have?
infants - 20, adults - 32
From superficial to deep, what are the structures found in a typical tooth?
enamel, dentin, pulp
Where is the swallowing center located?
Acid reflex into the esophagus in normally prevented by what?
lower esophageal sphincter
____ is screted by _____ which is necessary for B12 absorption.
intrisic factor; parietal cells
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is what?
What synthesizes bile acids while metabolizing cholesterol?
Fat should account for how much of the daily caloric intake?
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ______ wheras protein digestion begins in the _______
What are the 3 most abundant classes of nutrients?
proteins, fats, carbohydrates
Bacterial flora does not carry out digesting most of what?
proteins we get in the diet
Defecation is stimulated by what?
stretching of the rectum
Macronutrients include what?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
___ yields about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, wheras _____ yields about 9 kcal/g
proteins and carbohydrates; fats
Heat exhaustion results from what?
extreme loss of electrolytes in sweating
What constitutes bad cholesterol?
Most protein in the body is found where?
What vitamin dificiency is most common world wide?
Most of the body's fat is stored as what?