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ASTRONOMY QUIZ 2 WOOO
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Gravity
gravity & orbits
Terms in this set (37)
objects fall down because there is a ______________
interaction between the _____________
non-contact, earth and the object
gravity provides a force on the object toward the
direction of the net force (center of gravity)
The more massive an object is,
the stronger the force of gravity on that object
More massive and less massive objects fall to Earth at the same/differing rate(s)?
the same
if you drop a book or pencil, which will hit the ground first? why?
they will both hit the ground at the same time! this is due to the fact that to accelerate a more massive object, you must apply more force. That is just what gravity does! The more mass an object has, the more force will be applied to it. Less massive objects need less force. So, all objects will accelerate towards the Earth at the same rate of speed due to the force of gravity.
The gravitational force between two objects depends on the
inverse of distance squared between the objects
perpendicular force DOES NOT have an affect on
speed
perpendicular force DOES have an affect on
direction
Gravity is a sideways force if an object is moving (or thrown)
horizontally on the Earth (Galileo's
thought experiment).
If an object doesn't have enough sideways speed near a large mass (planet/sun),
then the object falls in
If an object has just the right sideways speed near a large mass, then
the object goes into a circular orbit
If an object has too low or too high of sideways speed near a large mass, then
the object goes into an oval orbit
If an object has too high of sideways speed near a large mass, then
the object escapes orbit and doesn't return
circular orbits have
constant speed
during an oval orbit, the object goes faster when it is _________________________ and goes slower _____________
closer to the sun/planet, farther
away (Halley's comet)
The force of gravity acting on all objects is
different
force of gravity is directly related to
_____.
mass
the rate of change of speed on Earth is the same for all objects, so the objects will .
fall toward the Earth at the same time
the farther objects are from each other,
the weaker the force between them will be
the closer objects are to each other,
the stronger the forces between them will be
forces between objects are
equal!
Factors that affect the gravitational force between objects
mass of both objects, distance (squared)
distance squared has an _______ relationship with force of gravity
inverse (more distance, weaker force, vice versa)
mass has an _______ relationship with force of gravity
direct (more mass, more force, vice versa)
As the distance between the objects increase, the gravitational force
decreases
As the mass of one of the objects increases, the gravitational force
increases
We can experience weightlessness when
the net force of forces acting on you is zero
mass is measurement of
the amount of matter in you
weight is a measure of the
force of gravity on you
Why does an object in oval orbit move faster when it is closer to the large mass, and slower when it is further away?
this is because the closer the object in orbit gets to the large mass, the larger the force of gravity. This causes the object to change direction more rapidly, so the orbit is faster.
the greater the orbital radius,
the longer the period
Orbital radius
the distance from the object to the large mass
that it is orbiting.
Period
the time it takes to complete one orbit around the
large mass that it orbits.
the smaller the orbital radius, the greater the
force of gravity acting on the object
If the orbital radius is small, the object orbiting will
change direction more dramatically so it will complete its period faster.
If the orbital radius is larger, then it has more
distance to travel to complete its orbit.
For an object to go into circular orbit, it must
1. have the right speed to enter orbit
2. That speed is 90° (perpendicular) to the force of gravity.
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Verified questions
ASTRONOMY
What is the acceleration of gravity (g) at the surface of the Sun? (See Appendix E for the Sun’s key characteristics.) How much greater is this than g at the surface of Earth? Calculate what you would weigh on the surface of the Sun. Your weight would be your Earth weight multiplied by the ratio of the acceleration of gravity on the Sun to the acceleration of gravity on Earth. (Okay, we know that the Sun does not have a solid surface to stand on and that you would be vaporized if you were at the Sun’s photosphere. Humor us for the sake of doing these calculations.)
ASTRONOMY
Where (in the southern sky, on the eastern horizon, on the western horizon , high in the sky, etc.) would you look to see the new Moon, if it were visible, when it starts to rise? What time would this happen?
ASTRONOMY
If all life were destroyed on Earth by a large impact, would new life eventually form to take its place? Explain how conditions would have to change for life to start again on our planet.
ASTRONOMY
What is the orbital period of Ceres? (Hints: Use Kepler's third law. Ceres's average distance from the sun is 2.8 AU.)