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delta paper 1 task 1 and 2
Terms in this set (146)
Adjacency pairs are part of the structure of conversation and are studied in conversation analysis. They are a sequence of two related utterances by two different speakers, The second utterance is always a response to the first. For example, speaker A makes a complaint, and speaker B replies with a denial.
A: You left the light on
B: It wasn't me!
The sequence of complaint-denial is an adjacency pair.
15 mins 12 marks 2 marks correct definition 1 mark example keep concise by using bullet points don't need to write complete sentences
PAPER 2: How long take? How many marks? How many marks given for correct definition / example? How can you keep it concise?
5 minutes. 6 marks. don't need examples, explanations etc.
PAPER 1: How long should I spend on paper 1 ? How many marks? Do we need examples, explanations etc.
a test in which certain words from the text have been replaced by blanks at regular intervals, which learners are required to fill with an appropriate word.
the use of grammatical or lexical devices to link elements of a text together and show how they are related.
cohesion (exam answer)
a language-teaching methodic which learners establish content of the lesson through engaging in meaningful communication, and in which the teacher acts as a paraphraser or 'counsellor', often making use of the learners' L1 and translation.
community Language Learning (CLL)
a morpheme that is attached to either the beginning or the end of a word to create a new word or a new form of a word.
a type of spoken or written discourse whose structure and features are recognised by a particular culture or speech community.
two words (or phrases) that differ only in one phoneme and have distinct meanings.
a minimal pair
schema is the knowledge that we bring to a particular topic or concept (content schema) and the way it is represented in language (formal schema).
e.g. when entering a restaurant we know that the waiter is likely to show us to a table, provide us with menus, take our order, etc. We also have a good idea of the language waiters and customers will use and the sequence in which the utterances will be produced ('Are you ready to order? 'Could I have...', What would you like to drink?, etc.).
schema (exam answer)
The hypothesis popularised by Eric Lenneberg, that during the early years of our lives (until around puberty) we find it easier to acquire language.
e.g. research shows that people who start learning a language after this period tend to have difficulty reaching native like pronunciation.
critical period hypothesis
the smallest unit of meaningful sound.
e.g. /t/ in sit or /p/ in sip
the repetition within one or more sentences of phrases or clauses with the same grammatical structure in order to aid cohesion.
e.g. I spent the holiday fish*ing*, drink*ing* and sleep
I spent the holiday fish*ing*, drink*ing* and sleep
a feature of connected speech when a sound changes to another sound because of a neighbouring sound.
e.g. in ten boys /n/ followed by /b/ changes to /m/ as in /tembɔɪz/
a word which is opposite in meaning to another one, for example adjectives such as big - small or verbs such as arrive - leave
a test which compares test takers to each other rather than against external criteria
a procedure in which students create a text by planning, drafting, revising, editing and then publishing or sharing it with others.
process writing / a process approach
verbs which are used to support another verb in a sentence and have grammatical function such as showing tense, aspect, person, voice and mood
e.g. be, do, have, will, may, can
language used by speakers to avoid frequent, long or silent pauses, to hold the floor, gain thinking time etc
e.g. er, urm, well, you know
fillers / discourse fillers/ hesitation devices / pause fillers / hesitators / hesitation strategies / filler expressions / conversation fillers
-(the study) of the way in which words are ordered /connected in clauses/sentences
-(the study) of the way in which words fit together
- (the study) of the way in which clauses /sentences are constructed to make meaning
- word order
(a major component of the grammar of a language: syntax + morphology = grammar)
- (varies from one language to another)
- (plays major role in English)
- (syntax was important focus in the grammar translation approach adds cohesion
In English basic order of sentence elements is
:Subject - Verb -Object
:adverbs of frequency usually precede verb
:wh. qu. forms: wh word + auxiliary + subject + infinitive
the smallest meaningful/grammatical unit in a language/word
which cannot stand on its own
- can change the word class or meaning
- can be used lexically (derivational morphemes) or grammatically ( inflectional morphemes) there are also free morphemes
- in some languages there are infixes
Prefixes such as un- and de-
suffices such as -ly and -ity
inflections such as -s -ed -ing
a (new) word created by combing two (or more) words/nouns/adjectives/prepositions/adverbs/verbs (if candidate specifies part of speech they must mention at least two)
- (compound words) can be nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions (candidate needs to mention 2 kinds of parts of speech to gain point)
- can be hyphenated or non-hyphenated (written as one word) -They differ in meaning from individual components
- stress placement can cause difficulties for learners / is usually on 1st word in noun compounds
memory stick / brand name / over-ambitious / website / downsize / single-handedly / into
A methodology in which
students respond to instructions / language with action
in order to mediate / reinforce learning
- progress from observation, to listen and respond to speaking
- students are under no pressure to speak / a silent period is allowed based on theories of how children learn L1
- reception comes before production
-often associated with lower level /young learners
-developed by Asher in the 1970's
-associated with comprehensible input (Krashen)
- shares principles with the natural approach (not same as)
The teacher says jump and the students jump, then students say jump (if they are ready) and other students jump
TPR (Total Physical Response)
An adverbial is a word (referred to as an "adverb") or a group of words (denoted as an "adverbial clause" or "adverbial phrase") that modifies or provides information about the sentence or the verb, e.g. place, method, time, quantity, etc. For example: "Chris slurped his soup LOUDLY" or "Chris went to bed EARLY TONIGHT."
The air is first blocked and then released more gradually than in a plosive. Example /t͡ʃ/ , /d͡ʒ/
A word which is opposite in meaning to another e.g. awake and asleep. There are different types of antonyms. For example tired and energised are gradable opposites in that they vary in degree depending on the adverb they are modified by (very, quite etc.). Awake and asleep, on the other hand, are non-gradable opposites, known as complementaries. Other examples of complementaries are single and married, and alive and dead. Another type of antonymy is converseness,where there is a reciprocal relationship between the two words, such as buy and sell, and lend and borrow.
A word can have different antonyms depending on the context. For example, the opposite of tired might be energised when talking about a person, but new when talking about a pair of shoes.
The airflow is hardly obstructed.
Example /w/, /r/, /j/ as in 'you'
In contrast to tense, aspect is a more general approach to considering verb forms and to analysing the way in which speakers view events, i.e. whether an event has been completed, whether it is long or short in duration, etc. There are two aspects in English, the continuous (or progressive)
Also known as the Audiolingual Method, this approach was heavily influenced by behaviourist views of language acquisition and, in turn, structural linguistics, which claimed that the best way to learn a language was through repetition and habit formation. In this method, students are taught structures which are normally presented in the form of a dialogue. They then practise the target structures through various drill exercises. The focus is on accuracy and the prevention of errors.
e.g. The teacher presents a dialogue where two people meet on the way to the post office featuring the target structure "I'm going to the post office". After drilling the dialogue various times, the teacher then proceeds to conduct substitution drills, transformation drills, chain drills etc. with the target structure.
Aural-Oral Approach / Structuralism
by Ellie Swan - Tuesday, 20 September 2016, 7:16 PM
Authentic material is text originally produced for a non-classroom audience, that has not been modified in any way. Authentic materials became popular with the advent of the communicative approach as they are generally more interesting and a better preparation for real life reading and listening. Authentic material contrasts with graded material which has been modified to suit a particular level or language point.
Back channeling is a term coined by Victor Yngve (1970). Backchannels are a listener's response to one way communications. They are used to show a primary speaker that the listener is engaged in the conversation and does not wish to interrupt. They can be verbal or non-verbal.
Yeah, they seem to be in all cultures and languages but can cause problems in intercultural communication.
As research in this area has increased, three main categories have been created: Non-lexical.
uh-huh (nod of head)
Is that so?
and finally susbstantive backchannels which consist of more substantial turn-taking by the listener and usually manifest as asking for clarification or repetitions.
So substantive is the final of the three.
In English, tag questions are also often used for back-channelling.
This refers to the un/favourable effects testing can have on teaching and learning e.g. if the test content and testing techniques are at variance with the objectives of the course, the backwash can be harmful. Backwash is an aspect of the impact of assessment. The result could be demotivated or disengaged students. Alternatively, testing can be beneficial - increasing student motivation, developing autonomy and encouraging further language acquisition.
Source - Dr Tuzi (video 2) / Hughes p.1 Testing for Language Teachers.
Learners adopt a bottom up approach to reading when they focus on the grammar and vocabulary of a text (as opposed to the whole meaning) in order to understand. This contrasts with a top down approach where the focus is on the meaning of the text as a whole.
bottom up approach to listening and reading
Cataphoric reference is the use of an expression or word that co-refers with a later, more specific, expression in the discourse. The preceding expression, whose meaning is determined or specified by the later expression, may be called a cataphor. The more specific expression is often called the postcedent.
Cataphoric references appear in bold, postcedents are underlined:
If you want
, here's some
left the barracks.
If you want
, there are
in the kitchen.
Cataphoric reference is often used by authors as an opening device to create intrigue and entice people to read further and also place people in the middle of an ongoing story
The initial vowel sound of a word is linked to the final consonant sound of the previous word.
Example picked_ up , week_off
Broadly put, coherence refers to text being logical, consistent or semantically meaningful. For instance, the sentence pair
I think rabbits are cute animals, but they take the train twice every day. On the contrary, cheesecake is delicious and requires English to be spoken.
while being cohesive, would likely not be considered as coherent.
Coherence refers to spoken or written language containing grammatical and/or lexical features that help the listener/reader to notice the links between language chunks; they contribute to the connectiveness or "smooth flow" of language. These features include but are not limited to: pronouns, conjunctions, determiners, certain adverbs and a number of different phrases which, together, can be classed as linkers or linking devices, and parallel verb tenses.
For example, the sentence
Jill enjoys reading. Jack prefers swimming. Jill and Jack like cycling. Jill and Jack like to cook.
would likely not be considered as cohesive whereas the following one probably would:
Jill enjoys reading, Jack prefers swimming.
as well as
Collaborative assessment is when multiple evaluators evaluate the same item. For example, a faculty member may invite a department to evaluate his/her course, or a student may invite his/her classmates and teachers to evaluate his/her ePortfolio.
collocation deals with the combination of two or more words combined together to form an accepted relationship. Strong collocation implies that very few alternatives from the accepted relationship are available, for example 'figment' almost always collocates with 'of one's imagination'. 'One', however, collocates with many words such as 'day', 'hour', 'of us', and is therefore a weak collocator. As such, it could be argued that drawing students' attention to strong and weak collocations will improve their ability to produce more natural language.
collocation - strong/weak
It's a sentence composed by Noam Chomsky in his 1957. Although it's grammatically correct there is no understandable meaning. Thus , it demonstrates the distinction between syntax and semantics.
Colourless green ideas sleep furiously
In contrast with linguistic competence, communicative competence refers to the learner's ability not only to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to judge if they are appropriate or not for the context. In order to communicate effectively, a learner must know when to speak, what to talk about and which form is appropriate.
e.g. A learner who walks into a cafe and says "Give me a coffee!" demonstrates linguistic competence but not communicative competence.
Due to time constraints, speakers have less time to plan, organise and execute their message. Because of limited planning time, speakers often need to change what they have already said. The speaker tends to do this by repeating, rephrasing, correcting or improving on what they have already said.
It's the kind of internalized knowledge that allows us to distinguish well-formed sentences from ill-formed sentences such as ( This is the book that I lost it- This is the book that I lost).
It's the kind of internalized knowledge that allows us to distinguish well-formed sentences from ill-formed sentences such as ( This is the book that I lost it- This is the book that I lost).
A simple, or compound sentence in which both clauses co-ordinate. For example "My brother went home and baked a cake." A complex sentence contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. For example "My brother, who is a gardener (subordinate clause), loves baking cakes (main clause)."
complex sentence/simple sentence
CR belongs to the Cognitive Learning Theory and describes the way learners become aware or are made aware of features of the language they are learning. It is based on the idea that learners must notice features if they are to become intake. Helping learners to notice features is called presentation but CR is preferred as it credits learners with an active role in the process.
Noticing activities: word repetition/ drilling/ input flood/ noticing the gap.
Conscious Raising and Noticing Activities
Consonant sounds are made when the airflow from the lungs is obstructed by the articulators. They are classified in terms of the place where the obstruction occurs, the manner of obstruction, and whether or not they are voiced. The majority of them are formed in the area around the teeth and the hard palate.
For example /p/, /d/ , /ð/, /θ/
This is the comparing and contrasting of the linguistic systems of two languages. The contrastive analysis hypothesis (CAH) states that where there are similarities between the two languages, the target language will be learnt more easily, whereas differences between the two languages will cause the learner difficulty. CAH is part of the Behaviourist approach which assumes that language learning is the result of habit formation. Research has show however, that not all errors can be predicted by using CAH, and that errors are not bi-directional between the two languages.
A corpus is a large collection of language (text or speech) stored (nowadays electronically) in order to analyse how a language is actually used. Corpora have transformed the way dictionaries are produced, and are becoming more popular in the ESL classroom.
The time, from early childhood to puberty, in which language development must occur. If language acquisition has not been stimulated within this time frame, normal language development cannot take place.
critical period hypothesis
A deductive approach to teaching language begins with the presentation of rules which are then illustrated with examples. Learners are then asked to apply the rules in practice activities.
e.g. Learners are provided with the following rule and examples: the past tense of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive. Walk - walked; clean - cleaned; order - ordered. They then apply this rule in a practice activity.
An inductive approach to language teaching encourages learners to work out rules for themselves, either implicitly or explicitly, from examples provided by the teacher.
e.g. Learners are given examples of sentences using the past simple of regular verbs and are asked to formulate a rule.
Deductive approach / inductive approach
Denotation is the basic meaning of a word whereas connotation is the evaluative meaning associated with the word. For example, slim, skinny and thin all have the same denotation but their connotations are rather different. While slim has positive connotations and thin would perhaps be considered neutral, skinny has more negative connotations. Compare "You're looking lovely and slim these days, Karen" with "Have you seen Matt recently? He's looking terribly skinny".
Denotation / connotation
A determiner is a modifier used to clarify which object (usually a noun or noun group) is being referred to or to provide information about quantity. An example of the combination of both functions may be: "SOME of THESE pencils are mine."
Two primary types of discourse analysis may be distinguished: descriptive and critical. The former is the study of how stretches of language achieve both cohesion and coherence, and seeks to identify patterns and regularities of language beyond the sentence level. The latter views language as a social phenomenon, and examines the relationship between texts and power relationships and ideology.
(also called pragmatic markers) are words or expressions like well, anyway, I mean, right, actually, that normally come up at the beginning of an utterance, and function to orient the listener to what will follow. They do this by indicating some kind of direction in the talk, or by appealing to the listener in some way.
This refers to testing one element at a time; item by item e.g. a series of items, each testing a particular grammatical structure such as the present perfect simple tense. This is almost always indirect testing.
discrete point testing
A loose collective of teachers who challenge what they consider to be an over-reliance on materials. Triggered by Scott Thornbury, it argues for a pedagogy of bare essentials, free from excess materials and technology while being rather more focussed on the relevant concerns and needs of the people in the classroom.
In contrast to a stative verb, a dynamic verb (also referred to as an "action verb") is usually used to describe actions that can be taken or events which happen that involve process or change, e.g. I'm eating a piece of cheese out of the fridge."
Ellipsis refers to the omission of words in a sentence due to the communicators agreeing on their obsoleteness in the context. For example "Went shops." The speaker here means "I went to the shops," but the elliptical phrase omitting several function words still more than satisfies the communicator's intended meaning. Common in spoken English, ellipsis is also common in written texts where brevity is needed, for example a newspaper headline.
A form of teacher development and research which enables both teachers and their students to enhance their understanding of their own learning environment. Rather than focusing on teacher self-awareness (as in Reflective Practice) or problem solving (as in Action Research), it focuses on understanding a particular aspect of what goes on in the classroom. It actively involves both the teacher and the students and is integrated into normal classroom activity so as not to disturb anything.
e.g. A teacher wants to understand why students aren't taking responsibility for their learning outside the classroom and doing their homework. At the beginning of the class she asks students to talk in pairs about whether they have done the homework and if not, why? The beginning of every class is devoted to talking in pairs about a given topic so this does not disrupt normal classroom routine in any way.
Because of time pressure speakers have less time to plan organize and execute their message. Speakers use devices in order to facilitate production. Facilitation devices include simplification (inc. parataxis), ellipses, fixed formulaic language (expressions), hesitation devices and fillers.
There four common features of spoken language used to facilitate production.
1. 1) Speakers use less complex syntax (simplifying structure e.g. tack new sentences on to previous by the use of coordinating-conjunctions like 'and', 'or', 'but' or even without a conjunction at all. (parataxis). In addition to parataxis speakers often avoid complex noun groups with with many adjectives preceding them. Instead they tend to repeat the same sentence structure to add further adjectives separately).
2. 2) People take short cuts to avoid unnecessary effort in producing individual utterances. This often leads speakers to abbreviate the message and produce incomplete sentences or clauses, omitting unnecessary elements where possible (this is known as ellipses).
3. 3) Speakers used fixed conventional phrases (formulaic expressions).
4. 4) The use of fillers and hesitation devices e.g 'well', 'erm', sort of' 'kind of' etc.
Formative assessment, also called 'assessment for learning', is the use of assessment to give the learner and the teacher information about how well something has been learnt so that they can decide what to do next. It normally occurs during a course. Formative assessment can be compared with summative assessment, which evaluates how well something has been learnt in order to give a learner a grade.
e.g. Questioning, Observations
The air is partially blocked and friction is created.
Examples: /f/, /θ/, /z/, /h/, /ʃ/
The place of a word or phrase at the front of a clause or sentence to give it extra prominence e.g That I would really love to try (object fronted for greater prominence)
A functional exponent is a phrase that is used most commonly in situations where a suggestion or invitation is being made, e.g. "HOW ABOUT we go for a drink?" or "LET'S have Chinese tonight."
Gradable adjectives are those which can have different degrees. For example, big and small: a house can be quite big, very big or extremely big, just as it can be quite small, very small or extremely small. Ungradable adjectives, on the other hand, do not have different degrees. For example, a person cannot be very married, nor can a box be extremely wooden - it either is or it isn't. Extreme adjectives like terrifying and freezing fall into the category of ungradable adjectives, as they already contain the idea of 'very' in their definiton - freezing = very cold.
Gradable and ungradable adjectives are modified by different adverbs of degree, for example:
• gradable adjectives: a bit, very, extremely, quite
ungradable adjectives: absolutely, completely, totally, utterly.
Gradable / ungradable adjectives
Graded material is material that has been adapted or simplified to suit a particular level, or to present a particular language point. It is generally considered artificial (due to the simplicity, or an unnatural focus on one language point) and is not as popular as authentic or semi-authentic material which exposes learners to 'real life' language.
A method formalised in the mid 19th century which followed a deductive learning approach and where grammatical accuracy was highly prioritised. In this method, the grammar is practised through the translation of isolated sentences, from and into the target language.
Grammar Translation Method
I'm not an expert but you could say a hedge is a word, sound or construction predominantly used to lessen the impact, for the most part intentionally or unintentionally, in either spoken or written communication. Hedges presumably make statements less forceful or assertive. They tend to be adjectives or adverbs, but may also consist of clauses.
A word which is written in the same way as another, but is pronounced differently and has a different meaning. For example, windy (/wɪndiː/ and windy(/waɪndiː/): It became increasingly windy the further they travelled along the windy road.
A word which is written and pronounced in the same way as another but has a different meaning. For example, left (as in the opposite of right) and left (the past simple form of leave) are homonyms. After he left the house, he turned left and walked to the end of the road.
A word which is pronounced the same as another, but has a different meaning and is written differently. For example, write and right (/raɪt/) are homophones: She started to write the book right after he left.
A term that denotes a subcategory of a more general class. For example, chair and table are both subcategories or co-hyponyms of the more general class or superordinate furniture.
A hyponym is a more specific example of a general class of words. For example, 'shirt' is a hyponym of 'clothes'. A co-hyponym is a word found in a group of hyponyms, so 'shirt', along with many other words such as 'trousers', 'blouse' and 'skirt' are all co-hyponyms.
hyponym - co-hyponym
Informal Assessment result from spontaneous day-to-day observations of how students behave and perform in class.
Formal Assessment result from pre-planned, systematic attempts by the teacher to ascertain how well the students mastered learning outcomes.
e.g. standardized tests
Initial Assessment is a crucial part of the learning journey. It provides information about learners as individuals, and identifies any particular aspects which might otherwise go unnoticed. It is done prior to a programme or session commencing.
e.g. tutor observations, questionnaires
Diagnostic Assessment is a form of pre-assessment that allows a teacher to determine students' individual strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to the instruction. It is primarily used to diagnose student difficulties and to guide lesson and curriculum planning.
e.g. Unit pre-test
This form of testing contrasts with discrete point testing as it requires the candidate to combine many language elements in the completion of the test (tends to be direct testing). It's a more holistic form of testing language in context. Examples: an essay, an interview.
Intensive reading is reading a short text in detail, often in a classroom situation. It will often focus on discrete language items. Extensive reading, on the other hand, focuses on developing the habit and enjoyment of reading, and more general language acquisition. It is usually done outside classroom time.
Intensive and extensive reading
Involve using knowledge and basic motor-perception skills to communicate effectively. Learners therefore need to make communicative decisions, such as: what to say and how to say it. They need to be able to produce speech which conveys their intentions, while maintaining the desired relationships with their interlocutors.
Note: Our notions of what is right or wrong depend on such things as what we have decided to say, how successful we have been so far, what are intentions are, and what sorts of relations we intend to establish or maintain with the interlocutors. This of course is true of all communication in both speech and writing.
This is a system created by the learner to help acquire a second language. It can have elements of both the learner's native language and the target language. It is considered a language system in its own right, rather than merely a corruption of the target language and reflects the learner's evolving skill in the new language.
Knowledge is the grammar, lexis etc., of the language. Having knowledge of the underlying language systems on their own are not enough for successful communication, they also need skill. The skill is the person's ability to use their knowledge to produce the language in an intelligible way and understand what is said to them. The necessary skills can be broadly classified into motor perceptive and interactive skills.
A car driver clearly needs to know the names of the controls, where they are, what they do and how they are operated (knowledge). The driver also needs skill to be able to use the controls to guide the car along the road. You have to be able to do this at normally speed, you fail the driving test for doing this hesitantly in Britain.
Knowledge vs skill.
Acquisition is the non-conscious and natural process of internalizing the rules of a language as in our native language while learning encompasses classroom, study and attending to rules of grammar.
Krashen's acquisition learning distinction
The influence of a learner's native language is known as 'transfer' which can be either positive or negative. Second language interference is a negative influence. Interference can occur in all areas of language; pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse. It was very much part of the Behaviourist approach, as errors were attributed to the effect of first language habits.
It is a hypothetical module of the human mind to account for children's innate predisposition for language acquisition. It was first proposed by Noam Chomsky in the 1960's and refers to the mental ability that enables an infant to obtain and produce language.
Language acquisition device
Popularised by Michael Lewis, this approach sees language as "grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar". In this view, language is made up of pre-fabricated chunks, or multi-word units, and the main focus is on vocabulary rather than grammar. Collocation and word frequency are central to this approach.
e.g. Rather than focusing on 'will' for future, the teacher may present a series of utterances featuring 'will' and encourage students to notice how it is used: I'll give you a ring; I'll be back in a minute; I'll see you there.
A set of words that share a meaning relationship because they are all related to a certain topic or situation. For example, bed, nurse, patient, injection, drip, gown, visiting hours all form part of a 'hospital' lexical set.
Both listening for gist and listening for detail are approaches to listening comprehension and listening skills development. They contrast in that, in the case of the former, a person seeks to acquire a general impression of the content without focusing on smaller details while, in the case of the latter, they listen for specific information (e.g. for their name in a prize announcement on the radio) without necessarily seeking to understand the content as a whole. These approaches are akin to skimming and scanning, respectively, for the comprehension of written texts.
Listening for gist vs listening for detail
A theory made up of five hypotheses developed by Stephen Krashen which include; the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis, the input hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis. These five hypotheses bring together research findings from a wide area.
Motor-perceptive skills involve perceiving, recalling, and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language.
The air is pushed through the nasal cavity rather than the mouth.
Examples: /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ (sing).
This is the idea that the rules and structures of language are learnt in a pre-determined sequence; ie some rules will be learnt earlier and others later. This natural order is independent of the order rules are taught, and easier rules are not necessarily learnt before difficult rules . This hypothesis is part of Krashen's theory of second language acquisition.
Natural order hypothesis
Non-finite verbs, unlike finite verbs, do not show the person, number or tense they are related to. Past and present participles and the infinitive (with or without to) are both non-finite. L2 learners generally struggle more with non-finite verb forms more. For example, "After he had taken the children to school.." (finite- showing person relation) is more difficult to comprehend than "Having taken the children to school.." (non-finite- no person).
non-finite verb form
Test takers are evaluated against the group (not the test) where the mean/median/standard deviation/percentile rank are identified. Norm-referenced testing means evaluating everybody in the group against everybody else in that group and not against pre-set criteria, grading bands etc.
norm referenced testing
The organisation of the material in a syllabus which is determined by what learners expect to be able to express in the target language. It takes semantic knowledge as primary and attempts to answer the question 'What do users of the language need to express?'
It essentially implies a belief in language as a system of meaning rather than of form.
Notional Functional Approach
Parallelism is a phrase or sentence that has similar construction when side by side. The two phrases balance each other and have a grammatical and rhythmical pattern to aid grammatical cohesion and consistency.
e.g. Parallelism is useful. Parallelism is important. (noun+copula+adjective)
Parallelism can also refer to a similarity in construction, sound, meaning or meter. It is often seen in speeches, poetry, advertisements and other genres where a powerful emotional response or memory aid can be required. It is found in literary works as well as in ordinary conversations.
e.g. In Lincoln's Gettysburg address '... government of the people, by the people, for the people...'
Peer assessment is the assessment of students' work by other students of equal status.
e.g. 'think and share' opportunities during class questioning
It was used by Noam Chomsky to describe the actual use of language in concrete situations. It's also used to describe both the production ( parole) as well as the comprehension of language.
This is a system of teaching first language reading by focusing on sound-letter relationships. For example a child can learn to read 'cat' by sound out 'C - A -T'.
They are made by blocking a part of the mouth so that no air can pass through. The release of the obstruction produces 'popping' sounds
Example: /p/, /t/
PPP stands for presentation-practice-production. These represent the three stages of a lesson which follows this procedure. In the presentation stage, the teacher presents a language point (usually grammatical) to the students and either explains or elicits the form. Here, the teacher may use a text, a picture, a video etc. to enhance the presentation. In the practice stage, students do a number of controlled practice activities where the focus is on accuracy. For example, students may be asked to do a gap-fill exercise. Finally in the production stage the students move on to freer practice of the language item, where the focus is on fluency. Here, the students might engage in a role-play, for example.
Pragmatics refers to intended, rather than literal meaning. Pragmatics studies language used in real-life contexts. For example, "I'm so hungry I could eat a dead donkey's tail," means the speaker is very hungry. However, if offered a dead donkey's tail, it is highly unlikely they would eat it. Context is key to pragmatics, and is often lost on an L2 learner. Phrases such as "He's on a roll" may be difficult for an L2 learner to grasp, even in context, resulting in pragmatic failure. Sociopragmatic failure is also very common, for example an L2 learner may hear themselves being referred to as "darling" when buying something in a shop, and then use the same word when greeting their teacher or a police officer.
According to the Lexical Approach, a large part of native speakers' fluency comes from having access to a vast array of set phrases, which are easily brought up and recycled. The Lexical Approach sees lexis as important as grammar in SLA, and should be given as much time and effort in the classroom.
A process approach to teaching writing focuses the learners' attention on, and gives practice for, the different stages that are involved in the writing process. This process includes: planning (generating ideas, goal setting and organizing), drafting and redrafting, reviewing, including editing and proofreading, and, finally, publishing.
Advocates of a process approach argue for a more organic sequence of classroom activities , beginning with the brainstorming of ideas, writing preliminary drafts, comparing drafts, re-drafting, and conferencing, that is, talking their draft with the teacher, in order to fine-tune their ideas.
Processing conditions refer to the fact that speech unlike writing takes place under the pressure of time. Time constraints 'processing conditions' affect the speaker. The speaker has no time to plan so in order to get a message out, the speaker is likely to arrange language to communicate meaning in a different way from if they were in writing.
What the speaker is going to say is affected by the relationship between the participants in the interaction. For example, speaker needs to select a topic which is off interest to the other participant and to vary the degree on formality depending on the roles, relationships and status of the individual(s) taking part in the interaction. It also means using lexis that you think the interlocutor(s) knows and to their reactions.
Register refers to the way different discourses are utilised depending on context. Systematic Functional Linguistics argues that culture and context dictate which type of language will be used in any given situation, and thus should be taught accordingly. Register variables come in 3 forms: field (what is under discussion), tenor(relationship between communicators) and mode (written/ spoken). Generally, for any type of communication to share its register with another, all 3 variables must be shared. Register comes in useful when teaching English for specific purposes, such as business English.
Reliability is ascribed to a test when the scores obtained on a particular occasion are likely to be very similar to those which would have been obtained if administered to the same students with the same ability at a different time. The more similar the scores the more reliable the test is said to be.
This allows us to compare the reliability of different tests. The ideal reliability coefficient is 1. A test with this coefficient would give exactly the same results for a particular group of candidates regardless of when it was administered. A coefficient of zero would mean the results were unconnected. It is between 0 and1 that genuine reliability coefficients are found. There are 2 methods which can be used - test/retest and split half method.( For more detailed info on testing- Hughes .P.39 - Language Testing for Teachers)
Rhetorical structure refers to the organisation and the connection/cohesion of a text, according to its genre. A tabloid newspaper report would be structured very differently from an academic essay for example. Knowing these conventions of writing in English is useful, as different languages and cultures may use different structures.
Words rhyme if their stressed vowels and any subsequent sounds are identical. Examples:
bake - cake - flake
bakes - cakes - flakes
wine - sign - define
waiter - creator - calculator
inflation - conversation - miscommunication
Rhyme can also occur across word boundaries - eg
Like skimming, scanning is a reading technique whereby a person's eyes pass quickly over text without the intention of reading it in its entirety. However, the purpose of doing so is to find specific information which may or may not be related to comprehension of the text as a whole. For instance, one may scan for the name of a particular programme in a TV guide or to find a word in a dictionary.
This is a system within the mind for organising knowledge and information. It helps us make sense of the world around us and provides a framework to understand new information connected to the topic. An example would be a food preparation schema. A chef would easily make sense of phrases such as 'sweating the onions' and 'a slow oven'.
schema (plural schemata)
Self-assessment can be defined as information about the learners provided by the learner themselves, about their abilities, the progress they think they are making and what they think they can or cannot do yet with what they have learned in a course.
e.g. reflection stems such as.. I feel good about; I use to ... but now I...
Semantics, as opposed to pragmatics, studies meaning of language and how words relate to things in the real world. Referencing relations and their opposites between words (synonyms and antonyms) is key to semantics. "He's dead," would semantically be taken to mean he is no longer alive, compared to the pragmatic meaning which probably infers the speaker is not happy with someone and wishes to seriously reprimand them.
A period of time when the learner (either a child learning L1 or a learner learning L2) does not speak, but merely listens, in order to comprehend input until such a time able to verbalise ideas. The natural approach and total physical response methods are based on this principle, as learners are not forced to speak until they feel ready.
Developed in the 1930's - 1960's by British linguists, it is believed that speech, structure and a focus on a set of basic vocabulary items are seen as the basis of teaching. There are two major features:
1) a focus on vocabulary and reading are salient traits of SLT. It is thought that mastery of asset of high frequency vocabulary items will lead to good reading skills.
2)The analysis of English and the classification of grammatical structures into sentence patterns is believed to help learners internalise rules.
Situational Language Teaching
Skimming is a reading technique whereby a person's eyes pass quickly over a text. The purpose of doing so to get the gist or a general impression of the content of a reading selection. This may be done by targeting particular sections, such as headings, the first sentence(s)/paragraphs, pictures, etc., rather than reading the entire text.
They are physical phenomena produced by the speech organs. These include the tongue, the lips and the teeth. Sounds include vowels and consonants.
Examples: Bilabial consonants: the lips are brought together, eg /b/, /m/, /p/.
Dental consonants: the tip of the tongue is placed behind the teeth, eg /θ/, /ð/.
Front short vowels are /i/ (close), /e/ (mid) and /æ/ (open). We use the tongue at the front of the mouth and there's some lip-spreading.
Back short vowels are /ʊ/ and / ɒ/. We use the tongue at the back of the mouth and we get some lip-rounding.
In contrast to a dynamic verb, a stative verb is usually associated with a state or condition which is unchanging or unlikely to change, e.g. I love sweets. For this reason, stative verbs cannot normally be used in the gerund form.
It's the effect of emphasising syllables by increasing loudness, length and pitch. A stressed syllable is one that is made prominent and it contrasts with the syllables which are unstressed. Word stress refers to the prominence at the word level, while sentence stress refers to the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables over the whole sentence.
Part of the approach of Structuralism which emerged in the 1920's and 1930's. It essentially deals with language as a system of interrelated structures, emphasising accurate identification of syntactic and lexical form as opposed to meaning and historical development.
A method that applies principles of suggestion to teaching. Georgi Losanov believes that in the right conditions, the human mind is capable of accelerated learning. But the learner needs to be in the right emotional state and any negative feelings need to be eliminated through de-suggestion.
Classes are conducted to a background of soothing classical music while the teachers read the dialogues and their translations aloud. Learners, with fictitious names and personae, listen and follow the text. The assumption is that of subliminal learning.
Summative assessment, also called 'assessment of learning', measures the product of a student's learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.
e.g. exams, tests, projects
A term for an "umbrella" item of lexis which describes a category containing a range of more specific items. For example, the superordinate vehicleincludes the words car, motorbike, boat, lorry, bike, which are all co-hyponyms of each other.
A word that has the same or a similar meaning to another. For example, flat and apartment are synonyms in that they both refer to a suite of rooms on one floor forming a residence. However, synonyms are very rarely completely interchangeable and are often context-dependent. Flat, for example, is more common in British English, whereas apartment is more common in American English. Some synonyms may differ in connotation e.g. fat and overweight, while others may have different collocates e.g. mug and cup. While we can use both with the word tea (a cup of tea / a mug of tea), we might be mistaken for talking about something rather different when referring to the World Mug instead of the World Cup.
The target language is that which is being studied (often denoted as "L2") or the focus of a particular (part of a) lesson.
The task cycle is part of a typical model of task-based learning, which is an approach that makes the task the basic unit for planning and teaching. It is thought that students learn by using the language and the best way to do this is through completing various tasks. After being introduced to the task in the pre-task stage, students carry out the task in the second stage of the lesson, the task cycle. This is comprised of three parts: the task, planning and report. First students carry out the task in pairs or small groups, then they prepare to report to the class on how they did the task or its outcome, which they then do in the third part of the task cycle. After the task cycle, the third stage of the lesson is dedicated to language focus, in the form of analysis and practice.
The task cycle
Learners adopt a 'top down' approach to listening and reading when they bring in their own knowledge (schema) about the topic in order to understand the text as a whole. This contrasts with a bottom up approach where the learners focus purely on the language to gain understanding.
top down approach to listening and reading
Transitive verbs take an object, intransitive verbs do not. For example, "She sent us away" (transitive- us is the object) compared to "She disappeared" (not she disappeared us). Transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice ie "We were sent away", intransitive cannot be used with the passive ie "We were disappeared". Some transitive verbs can take two objects (known as ditransitive verbs) for example "She gave us a prize."
A turn is the time when a speaker is talking and turn-taking is the skill of knowing when to start and finish a turn in a conversation. It is an important organisational tool in spoken discourse. For example, one way that speakers signal a finished turn is to drop the pitch or volume of their voice at the end of an utterance.
It's the name given to the theory that all languages share certain fundamental principles. According to Noam Chomsky we are all genetically 'programmed' with an innate language learning faculty.
the theory which claims that every speaker of a language knows a set of principles which apply to
all languages and also a set of parameters that can vary from one language to another, but only
within set limits
Vague language - particularly common in speaking - is used for a variety of purposes, including and especially when the name or quantity (or a different aspect) of something is unknown or uncertain; it is used as a filler or to replace such information. For example: "Could you please hand me that THINGAMABOB over there?" or "What's that gooey STUFF clinging to your jacket?" Vague language can also be used to hedge, e.g. "Wasn't that KIND OF harsh of you to say that?" or "I'll see you at six-ISH."
They are produced without any significant obstruction and we distinguish them from one another by the shape of the lips or the position of the tongue.
According to the whole-word (or whole-language) approach - born out of constructivist thinking - learners undergoing literacy instruction are led to recognize words as units in themselves, without breaking them down into smaller parts, i.e. affixes, graphemes, phonemes, etc. Proponents of this holistic approach hold that language, instead of being decoded in this way, is, rather, a complete system of producing meaning where words function in relation to others in context. This approach is akin to the lexical approach where vocabulary is built and grammatical structures learned by looking at, using and remembering prototypical language chunks and contextualized utterances.
Word formation is the process by which new words are created out of elements of existing ones. There are various different types of word formation, the two most common in English being affixation and compounding. Affixation is the process of adding affixes (prefixes or suffixes) to the word root, e.g. delight --> delightful; important --> unimportant. Compounding is the joining together of two or more words to create a new word, which can be written either as one word, hyphenated, or as separate words, e.g. air + bag = airbag; daughter + in + law = daughter-in-law; post + office = post office.
Other types of word formation include:
• conversion - when a word changes its word class without any change of form - text (noun) becomes to text (verb)
• clipping - when a word is shortened - refrigerator becomes fridge, television becomes telly.
• acronyms - a shortened version of a word/phrase, usually made up of the first letters of each word - compact disc becomes CD; automatic teller machine becomes ATM
• blends - a blend is a word formed by joining parts of two words after clipping - smoke and fog becomes smog; breakfast and lunch becomes brunch; biography and picture becomes biopic
• reduplication - when the root or stem of word, or the whole word, is repeated exactly or with a slight change - walkie-talkie; bye-bye; night-night; zig zag; splish splash
calque - a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal or word-for-word translation - flea market is directly translated from the French marché aux puces
-A kind of discourse marker that connects phrases, clauses or parts of a sentence together
Note: also called conjuncts
- John saw the signal
A question to which the teacher already knows the answer, asked in order to elicit learners' prior knowledge or to check comprehension.
Example: 'What do we call someone who works in politics?'
A display question
A suffix that when added to a noun, verb, adjective or adverb provides information about the grammatical function of the word, such as its number, tense, case, comparison or aspect, without changing the word class of the word.
Example: three newspapers, He loved her, Annie's, faster/fastest, He's gone fishing
A type of verb that consists of a verb and one or two particles (prepositions or adverbs).
Example: look after, run out of
A way of providing cohesion in a text by replacing a noun phrase or clause with a word or words,
e.g. 'Do you know John?', 'No, I don't think so.'
The formation of new words through the truncation of existing ones, e.g. ad (from advertisement)
or burger (from hamburger)
A test that tests learners' ability to perform certain skills by testing things related to the skill rather than by getting them to actually perform the skill
A phrase consisting of two words, often linked by a conjunction, that is semantically and syntactically fixed e.g. black and white
A classroom interaction pattern in which two learners are working together while the rest of the group observes/listens
replacing a noun phrase or a clause by a single word in order to avoid repetition or to make a text more cohesive
the attitudinal meaning of a word, which may be culturally determined, such as whether it carries a
positive or negative meaning
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