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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Unit 1 Keywords Part 3 - APUSH
Terms in this set (34)
WHO: Chief Justice John Jay
WHAT: Washington sent John Jay to negotiate peace with the British. The British had been providing guns and ammunition to Indians and seizing American ships in the West Indies. The British also impressed seaman to work on British ships and forced many people into dungeons. Jay won a few concessions including: British promise to leave posts in America and British would pay the damages they inflicted on American ships. However, the British failed to promise the seizure of ships in the future.
WHY: To negotiate peace with Britain
HS: This treaty angered many Jeffersonians because it looked as if America was surrendering to the British. Also, this gave strength to the Democratic-Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson. This treaty also led to the 1795 Pinckney's Treaty with Spain because the Spanish feared an Anglo-American alliance.
Letters from a Pennsylvanian
WHO: Lawyer and Legislator John Dickinson.
WHAT: A series of essays written by lawyer and legislator John Dickinson published between 1767-1768. Read throughout the 13 colonies and helped unite the colonists against the Townshend Acts.
WHY: Dickinson argued that the colonies were sovereign in internal affairs. Also said that taxes rose upon colonists by Parliament for revenue were unconstitutional.
HS: These series of essays helped unite the colonists against the Townshend Acts and worked side-by-side with Common Sense in that it promoted revolutionary ideals.
WHO/WHAT: American colonists who remained loyal to the British Empire and Monarchy during the Revolutionary War. Often referred to as: Tories, Royalists, or King's Men. Opposed by the Patriots, supporters of the revolution. About 15 to 20 percent were loyal. They were usually older, wealthy people who believed rebellion against the crown was morally wrong.
HS: These were people who stayed loyal to Britain because they saw nothing was wrong. Eventually they fled to British Canada and Britain after the revolution.
WHO/WHAT: A person of mixed white and black ancestry. European and African.
HS: Created new cultures and a more diversified society
WHAT: This law touched on how a nation should handle its colonies. The solution was that there would be temporary guardianship over the Northwest, then permanent equality. This also deemed slavery forbidden in the Northwest. First, the government would watch over the territory. Then when it had more than sixty thousand inhabitants, Congress could admit it as a state, with all the privileges of the thirteen charter members.
HS: This scheme brought happiness to citizens and made it so congress did not have to enact subordination. It avoided a second Revolutionary war and was later used on other frontier areas.
WHAT: A response to Britain raising the price of goods sold to Native Americans and ceasing to pay rent on their western forts in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War. Ottawa Pontiac rallied a group of tribes in the Ohio Valley and attacked colonial outposts.
WHO: Ottawa Pontiac
HS: Led to the British government issuing the Proclamation of 1763, which closed off the frontier to colonial expansion calming the fear of Indians. This made colonists angry because they felt as if Britain had let them down.
Proclamation of Neutrality
WHO: President George Washington
WHAT: A formal announcement declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.
WHEN: May 1793
HS: Kept America from weakening their new Nation and small army
WHO: Signed by San Lorenzo de El Escorial
WHAT: It established intentions of friendship between the US and Spain. Also defined boundaries between US and Spanish colonies and guaranteed American navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
WHEN: October 27, 1795
HS: Ended the phase of dispute of West Florida Controversy, a dispute between the two nations over the boundaries of the Spanish colony of West Florida.
WHAT: A 20th century term for an attitude toward women's roles present in the emerging United States before, during, and after the Revolution. Focused primarily on the belief that the patriots' daughters should be raised to have the ideals of republicanism, in order to pass on republican values to the next generation. Meant civic duty.
HS: Elevated women to a newly prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience.
Separation of Powers
WHAT: The division of power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government
HS: This separated our government into the three branches it is today and set a model for how our country was to be governed.
WHAT: Land west of the Appalachian Mountain where settlers concentrated. Consisted of Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee.
HS: Led to the expansion of America and growth of population
WHAT: , Britain claimed many lands around the world and created colonies. Some of the most famous colonies were the thirteen colonies in the New World. These thirteen colonies began the United States of America by fighting for their independence against Britain's Monarchial Rule. Britain ruled and continues to rule many parts of the world. The country owns land in all of the seven continents.
WHEN: Age of discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries
HS: The British Colonies in the New World created America after the revolutionary war. If Britain had not colonized in the New World, America would not exist. Influenced life in America
Colonial Independence Movement
WHAT: When a colonized area wants independence from colonialism. In this case the thirteen colonies wanted independence from Britain.
HS: In history, many colonies have declared their independence and worked to solidify that claim. They united to form a rebellion against Britain. Also, there are many other revolutions in this age. Arguing rights as English to Americans.
WHAT: Influenced by enlightenment thinkers in Greece, these ideas helped shape America and its constitution. The ideas included: liberty equality, and justice.
HS: These values helped to build America for what it stands for and keep the reputation of a free country to all. Difference between republicanism is how do you take these ideas and institutionalize them. Not everyone enjoys. Ideas vs. actual government to promote ideas.
Freedom of Speech
WHAT: The political right to communicate one's opinions and ideas using one's body and property to anyone who is willing to receive them. This idea was part of the first amendment in the Bill of Rights and part of America's constitution.
HS: Granted Americans the right to say as they please with various limitations and not be persecuted for their beliefs and ideas.
Huron Confederation Dispersal
WHO/WHAT: A group of four Indian tribes who first came in contact with the French in the 16th century. Many perished because of disease the French brought over from Europe. Another reason why they dispersed was because the Haudenosaunee burned their villages since the French has sided with them. The Huron people fled across the land. Seven Years' War. Colonists felt they are attacked constantly by American Indians and those allied with the French.
WHEN: 16th Century
HS: Their dispersion caused the development of many states. They created settlements across the Lake Michigan region soon to be discovered by Americans. Allied with French. Provides justification of the British which leads to debt and war.
George Washington Dispersal
WHO: A Virginian who was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and President of the Constitutional Convention. Later became the First President and is considered to be an American founding father.
HS: He was one of the most influential war commanders and served as the first president of the United States. He wanted the United States to never become divided into two different parties.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
WHO: Put into practice by Jefferson and James Madison
WHAT/WHY: Secretly made to get the rights back taken away from the Alien and Sedition Acts.
HS: Brought about the later compact theory, which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Little Turtle and the Western Confederacy
WHO: Little Turtle, chief of the Miami people
WHAT: He led his followers in several major victories against United States forces in the 1790s during the Northwest Indian Wars. He belonged to the Western Confederacy of Indians Great Lakes Region. Their goal was to deal jointly with America.
HS: After raids to discourage settlement, the Western confederacy found themselves in a battle with America. Led to Battle of Fallen Timbers, which ended with the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 granting America Ohio lands.
WHAT: this act suppressed North American Trade of molasses and sugar with the French West Indies.
WHERE: British colonies/America
HS: Americans still worked their way around the act by smuggling resources to the French West Indies. This showed that the American colonist would not adhere to the British laws, later leading to revolution.
WHAT: Whenever any one or more persons populate an area.
HS: Colonizing has been going on since the first people walked the Earth. More relevant, the British colonized America when they came over. They secured 13 colonies for themselves.
WHO: Alexander Hamilton
WHAT: Document issued by Alexander Hamilton asking Congress to charter the bank of the United States. He wanted this to be jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government. He argued that the bank would provide financial stability by making loans to merchants, by handling government funds, and by issuing bills of credit.
HS: Led to the creation of a National Bank helping the economy and stability of the new nation of America.
WHO/WHAT: A group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764 and protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians.
HS: Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Proclamation of 1763
WHAT: After Pontiac's Rebellion, the British sought peace with the Indians by prohibiting colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
HS: The American's saw this ban as an unlawful restriction of their rights and generally ignored it.
WHO/WHAT: American colonists in the 1770s who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War.
HS: After winning the war, they helped create the America known today.
WHAT: Modeled after Greek and Roman republics. Meant that a just society was one in which all citizens subordinated their private, selfish interest to the common good. Stability of the society was then dependent on the virtue of its citizens and it was opposed to hierarchical and authoritarian institutions such as a monarchy. Founders try to create a free country from these ideas where everyone has a say.
HS: Created a way in which politics were run in America. Some believed in the Republican ideals and others didn't. Later this would lead to the dividing of a nation with political parties. Open doors to democracy
WHO: Daniel Shay
WHAT: A rebellion by debt farmers in western Massachusetts led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shay against Boston creditors.
WHEN: Began in 1786 and lasted half a year.
HS: Threatened the economic interests of the business elite and contributed to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Seven Years' War
WHO: French and English
WHAT: War fought by the French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio Rover Valley. English defeated French in 1763. Often considered to be the First World War because it involved most of the globe.
HS: Established England as a number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of colonists toward England for the worse
WHAT: Home to many cultured indigenous people who came over from Russia. Columbus discovered the land in the Western Hemisphere in 1492 and exploration begun. Defend Western Hemisphere. Exploration and "discovery." Our region!
HS: Now the Western Hemisphere is home to nearly half of the world's population. The people are very diversified and are from many different cultures dating back to the Native Americans first arrival.
WHAT: individual legal and constitutional protection against the government. The American Civil Liberties Union was founded in 1920 to promote the freedom of speech for anti-war protestors.
HS: Allowed Americans to be free under the guardianship of the constitution and bill of rights.
Began in 1789 and then became hostile in 1792 when France declared war Austria. The French sought help from America by regarding the France-American alliance of 1778. In response, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral. Washington did not want to damage the new country's trade business.
HS: Led to the declaring of the Neutrality Proclamation, which led to arguments between the French and Americans. Finally they came to peace in 1800.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
WHO: Alexander Hamilton
WHAT: Plan to pay of the revolutionary war. The federal government would assume all debts (makes the states feel like they have to repay gov), create a national bank, and impose higher taxes/tariffs.
HS: Helped to pay off the revolution efforts. Create stable economy for America. Created tension between states and federal government
• Necessary proper clause: fed gov. and do anything to ensure functioning of nation
• Jefferson says infringing on rights. If the fed gov does not have power explicitly said in constitution then power goes to state. From beginning there is tension.
• After central bank, capitalist manufacturing begins. Set paths to civil war.
Mercy Otis Warren
WHO/WHAT: New England woman who wrote many important works questioning the declining republican values in post revolutionary America. These included a history of the revolution, a play, and poems. She was the head of the patriot women during the revolution.
HS: One of America's first writers
Washington's Farewell Address
WHO: George Washington
WHAT: . Washington decided to retire after serving two terms as President. Address printed in Newspapers. Strong advised against permanent alliances like the Franco-American treaty in 1778. Favored temporary alliances that would keep a week country out of war. Reminding citizens to be unified.
HS: Washington warned against political parties and promoted neutrality, these would eventually be broken in the future. He set a precedent for keeping a strong national government, promoting patriotism, and keeping morality in the government. We should be isolationist. Arguing against factions
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