187 terms

AP Music Theory Terms

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FORM
ways in which composition is shaped
Cadence
a harmonic goal, specifically the chords used at the goal
Cadential extension
delay of cadence by addition of material
Coda
conclusion of composition
Codetta
"small coda" marks end of sonatas, ends in perfect cadence
Contour
shape of the melody
Conjunct Contour
stepwise
Disjunct Contour
with leaps
Focal point Contour
highest note of the melody
Countermelody
accompanying melody sounding against the principle melody
Elision (phrase elision)
when last note of one phrase serves as first note of next phrase
Introduction
section which opens a movement, establishes melodic, harmonic, and/or rhythmic elements
Bridge
contrasting section which also prepares for the return of the original material section
Chorus (refrain)
line or lines that are repeated (starts off a jazz song)
Song form (AABA)
most popular structure
Turnaround
passage at end of a section which leads to the next section, often repetition of previous section, vi ii V I
Twelve-bar blues
three four-bar phrases, aab or abc pattern, most commonly I|I|I|I|IV|IV|I|I|V|IV|I|I|
Melodic Fragmentation
division of a musical idea into segments
Melodic Internal expansion
phrase extends beyond the expected phrase length
Root position
1 in bass
First inversion
3 in bass
Second inversion
5 in bass
Third inversion
7 in bass (n/a for triads)
Literal repetition
sequences are repeated, indicated by repeat sign, capo, or segno
Motivic transformation
rhythmic theme is changed
Melodic Inversion
melody flipped upside down
(Motivic transformation) Augmentation
multiplication
(Motivic transformation) Diminution
division
(Motivic transformation) Retrograde
backwards
Retrograde Inversion
upside-backwards melody
(Motivic transformation) Extension
addition
(Motivic transformation) Truncation
subtraction
Octave displacement
taking a melodic line and moving some of the notes into a different octave
Sequence
pattern that is repeated immediately in the same voice but that begins on a different pitch class
Tonal sequence
keeps pattern in single key, interval modifiers (major, minor, etc.) change (C-D-E to D-E-F)
Real sequence
transposes pattern to new key (C-D-E to D-E-F#)
Modified sequence
neither tonal nor real
Circle-of-fifths progression
series of roots related by descending 5ths (and/or ascending 4ths)
Transposition
to write or play music in some key other than the original
Motive
smallest identifiable musical idea, can consist of pitch pattern, rhythmic pattern, or both
Phrase
relatively independent musical idea terminated by a cadence
Subphrase
distinct portion of a phrase, usually not terminated by cadence
Period
two or more phrases in antecedent-consequent relationship, ends in cadence
Antecedent
"question," first phrase in a period, weaker cadence
Consequent
"answer," terminal phrase in a period, strong cadence
Parallel period
both phrases begin with similar material
Contrasting period
period in which phrase beginnings are not similar
Three-phrase period
three different phrases, 2A/1C or 1A/2C
Double period
four phrases in two pairs, cadence at end of second pair is stronger than cadence at the end of the first pair
Parallel double period
melodic material that begins two halves similar
Contrasting double period
melodic material that begins two halves different
Repeated phrase/period
two identical phrases
Phrase group
group of phrases seem to belong together without forming period or double period
Binary
movement with two main sections
Sectional binary
first section ends on tonic triad or main key
Continuous binary
first section ends on any other chord
Ternary
A B A, or statement-contrast-return
Rounded binary
A B 1/2A - almost identical to ternary
Solo, soli
alone
Stanza (verse)
two or more sections of a song have similar music and different lyrics
Strophic form
A A' A''- repetition of "one formal section": music, verses of songs, like nat'l anthem
Theme
initial or primary melody
Through-composed
continuous, non-sectional, non-repetitive, :different music for each stanza
Tutti
every instrument playing together
Variation
material is altered during repetition
HARMONY
use of different pitches simultaneously
Authentic cadence
V or viio to I
Perfect authentic cadence
V(7) to I (with tonic in soprano)
Imperfect authentic cadence
all ACs that are not PACs, with also viio - I
Root position IAC
V to 1 (w/ 3 or 5 in melody)
Inverted IAC
V(7) or V to I (w/ at least one inverted)
Leading tone IAC
viio I
Deceptive cadence
V to anything but I (usually vi)
Half cadence
ends in V
Phrygian half cadence
iv6 to V in minor
Plagal cadence
IV to I
Major Triad
M3, P5
Augmented Triad
M3, A5
Minor Triad
m3, P5
Diminished Triad
m3, d5
Major seventh
major triad + M3
Major minor seventh (Dominant 7th)
major triad + m3
Minor seventh
minor triad + m3
Half diminished seventh
diminished triad + M3
Fully diminished seventh
diminished triad + m3
(1^)
Tonic - Ionian
(2^)
Supertonic - Dorian
(3^)
Mediant - Phrygian
(4^)
Subdominant - Lydian
(5^)
Dominant - Mixolydian
(6^)
Submediant - Aeolian
(7-flat)
Subtonic
(7^)
Leading tone - Locrian for "guitarists"
Tonic function
"closer," place where progression finishes
Dominant function
leads to tonic
Subdominant function
prepare for the dominant
Deceptive progression
V to vi (makes you think you're going to I)
Harmonic rhythm
rate at which chords change
Modulation/tonicization
shift of tonal center that takes place within a movement
Enharmonically equivalent keys
two keys that sound the same (C# major and Db major)
Parallel keys
major and minor keys with same tonic (ex. C major and c minor)
Change of mode (mode mixture)
switch between parallel keys
Relative keys
major and minor keys with same key signature (ex. C major and a minor)
Closely related keys
two keys that have similar amount of sharps or flats (ex. Eb major and Ab major)
Common (pivot) chord modulation
using one or more chords that are common to both keys as an intersection between them
Common tone modulation
using one or more tones that are common to both keys as an intersection between them
Phrase modulation
modulations without common chords or tones (as opposed to common/pivot modulation)
Neighboring chord
formed by 2-3 neighbor notes occurring at the same time in similar motion to make a new chord
Realization
structure of figured bass
Retrogression
series of chords that weakens a tonality
Secondary dominant
V or V7 of a major or minor triad, to spell it:
Secondary leading tone chord
viiº of or viiº7 of V?
Arpeggiating 6/4
created by arpeggiation of the triad in the bass
Cadential 6/4
I6/4 to V to I, precedes the dominant, often at a cadence, embellishes dominant
Pedal (or "neighboring") 6/4
3rd and 5th of a root position triad are embellished by upper neighboring tones, bass is stationary, usually occurs on weak beat
Passing 6/4
"melodic bass", harmonizes a bass passing tone, usually on unaccented beat
Nonharmonic tones
tone that is not a member of the chord
Passing tone
approached by step, left by step in same direction
Neighboring tone
approached by step, left by step in opposite direction
Neighbor group
escape tone + appoggiatura
Suspension
approached by same tone, left by step down
Preparation
tone preceding the suspension (same pitch as suspension)
Resolution
tone following the suspension (2nd below it)
Rearticulated suspension
suspension that is rearticulated on the beat
Chain of suspensions
resolution of one suspension serves as preparation or another
Retardation
approached by same tone, left by step up
Appoggiatura
approached by leap, left by step
Escape tone (échappeé)
approached by step, left by leap in opposite direction
Anticipation
approached by step or leap, left by same tone
Pedal point
held note (which is rearticulated with chord changes) CT becomes NCT becomes CT
Embellishment
melodic decoration (an ornament note)
Close structure
less than an octave between soprano and tenor
Open structure
an octave or more between soprano and tenor
Voice leading
ways in which chords are connected
Crossed voices
do not allow any part to cross above soprano or below bass
Static motion
no movement (pedal)
Oblique motion
one voice stays the same, one moves
Similar motion
both voices in move in same direction
Contrary motion
voices move in different directions
Parallel motion
voices move together
Unequal 5ths
result when a P5 is followed by a º5, or the reverse, in the same two voices
Direct (hidden) fifths
results when the outer parts move in the same direction into a P5, with a leap in the soprano
Direct (hidden) octaves
results when the outer parts move in the same direction into a P8, with a leap in the soprano
Cross relation (false relation)
Najar: "chromatic resolution in different voice" Kirkpatrick: "simultaneous or adjacent occurrence of a note in its natural and chromatically inflected (#/b) form in different voices (sounds bad)"
Arpeggio, arpeggiation
notes that outline a chord
Consonance
pleasing to the ear, major and more 3rds and 6ths and perfect 5ths and 8ves
Dissonant
unpleasant to the ear, all other intervals, except P4, which is only dissonant in bass
Diatonic
chords that contain only notes found in the scale
Chromatic
chords that contain notes not found in the scale
Lead sheet
an abbreviated musical score, consisting of a melody line with chord names or symbols, and sometimes lyrics
Figured bass
baroque shorthand, with Arabic numeral chords
Picardy third
suddenly ending a minor composition in a major triad
Compound interval
interval greater than a P8
Inversion of an interval
9 minus the number and the opposite of the quality gives you the inversion ex. M2 to m7, +6 toº3, P4!P5
Tritone
interval that spans 3 whole tones, +4 or º5
Unison (prime)
same note
Agogic accent
longer than surrounding notes
Dynamic accent
louder than surrounding notes
Metrical accent
accent on the beat
Anacrusis
pickup measure, lead-in syllables that precede 1st full measure
Asymmetrical meter
meters that have an odd number of subdivisions, measure cannot be divided into equal beats (ex. 5/8)
Simple beat
beats divide into two equal parts
Compound beat
beats divide into three equal parts
Cross rhythm (polyrhythm)
simultaneous combination of contrasting rhythms
Hemiola
two bars in simple triple time are articulated as if they were three bars in simple duple time
Duple Meter
two beats per measure
Triple Meter
three beats per measure
Quadruple Meter
four beats per measure
Multimeter
changing meter
Swing rhythm
duration of the initial note in a pair is augmented and that of the second is diminished
Syncopation
stress on a normally unstressed beat, or a missing beat where a stressed one would normally be expected
Melismatic
changing the note of a single syllable of text while it is being sung
Syllabic
each syllable of text is matched to a single note
Alberti bass
arpeggiated accompaniment, 1^ 5^ 3^ 5^
Canon
contrapuntal composition, which employs a melody with one or more imitations (Pachelbel, row your boat)
Counterpoint, polyphony
relationship between two or more voices independent in contour and rhythm
Imitation
musical gesture is repeated later in a different form, but retaining its original character
Imitative polyphony
two or more equally prominent, simultaneous melodic lines, those lines being similar in shape and sound
Nonimitative polyphony
two or more melodic lines playing distinct melodies
Fugal imitation
each phrase of text is assigned a musical subject that is then taken up by each of the voices
Heterophony
single melody with drone/percussion, Eastern and strange
Homophony
two or more parts move together, Chordal homophony, Chordal texture, homorhythm- sameness of rhythm in all parts, melody with accompaniment
Monophony
melody without accompaniment, unison
Obbligato
played exactly as written
Ostinato
motif or phrase that is persistently repeated in the same musical voice
Tessitura
the pitch range that predominates in a particular piece
Polyphony
multiple melodies