AP US History Period 2 (1607-1754)
Terms in this set (51)
Cecil Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
Known for promoting religious tolerance in Maryland, awarded estates in Maryland to Catholic relatives; created Act of Toleration.
Act of Toleration
Statute in Maryland that permitted all forms of Christian worship (Protestant, Catholic, etc.), but atheists and Jews were still executed; passed in 1649 by local representative assembly.
A dissenter who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
A dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, her faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.
Applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Were originally known as the Religious Society of Friends, were offensive to authorities both religious and civil. They refused to support the established Church of England w/ taxes, built simple meetinghouses without a paid clergy, and abhorred strife and warfare and refused military service. They were a simple devoted democratic people who wanted to restore the simplicity and spirituality of early Christianity. Pennsylvania was a refuge for them.
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide a religious refuge for Quakers and other persecuted people, enact liberal ideas in government, and generate a profit.
Charter of Liberties (1701)-
Signed by Penn, which established a representative assembly in Pennsylvania, and stated that the lower counties (Delaware) of the colony could establish their own representative assembly. Also guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration.
Principal export crop of Carolina. One of the reasons Carolinians wanted African slaves (and that they were immune to malaria).
The most widely planted cash crop in Britain's North American colonies. It was originally a native plant that was used by the local Native American tribes in peace ceremonies or recreationally.
Explored the northeast coast of North America in 1497 and 1498, claiming Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Grand Banks for England.
Captain John Smith
He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
One of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco and is known as the husband of Pocahontas.
Daughter of Powhatan, she saved Captain John Smith from his captors. Her marriage to John Rolfe sealed peace agreement of First Anglo-Powhatan War.
Dominant religious group in Massachusetts Bay Colony. English Protestant Reformers who sought to Purify the church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds.
They (including the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
A form of puritan (separatists) who wanted to completely break away from the church of England. They emigrated to the Americas on the Mayflower to find safe haven, after negotiating for rights with the Virginia Company.
The ship that carried the Pilgrims across the Atlantic from the Netherlands to Plymouth Plantation in 1620 (the Pilgrims had fled England to the Netherlands before heading to the New World).
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholics were forbidden in his colony. Many felt that he was a dictator, and that caused the colony to break down and for him to lose his position as governor.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, he was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness.
The movement of African Americans from the South to the industrial centers of the Northeast and the Midwest. Causes for migration included decreasing cotton prices, the lack of immigrant workers in the North, increased manufacturing as a result of the war. Migration led to higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standards of life for some blacks.
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates. He helped found the colony of Connecticut.
Him and other puritans founded the town of New Haven. Combined with Hooker, he created the colony of Connecticut.
Tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Philip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers.
Called king Philip by the English. He united neighboring Indians in a last-ditch attack that failed.
King Philip's War
(1675-1676) Indian's unite at final chance to beat British, war ended in failure for Indians, Metacom was beheaded and drawn and quartered, his son and wife were sold into slavery. There was never a serious threat in New England again.
Not a constitution, a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon; was signed by 41 adult males, 11 of them with the exalted rank of mister though not by the servants and two seamen; was a promising step toward self-government.
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619.
Sir William Berkeley
The royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion.
Angry former indentured servants, mostly from West VA resented East planters. They were lead by Nathaniel Bacon. They were angered by the lack of response to Indian attacks. They chased Berkeley out of town but when Bacon died Berkeley crushed the uprising.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1682)
The first written constitution in American history written by Hartford settlers. It established a representative government consisting of legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by legislature.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed this in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Frame of Government
Document provided to Pennsylvania colony by William Penn which guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners in 1682-3
British colonies in the United States whose governments were trading-company charters or were modeled upon such charters. A feature of these colonies was that all political power rested in the members of the company.
A colony administered by a royal governor and council appointed by the British crown. In 1679, the king at the time made New Hampshire a Royal Colony.
A colony in which 1 or more individuals remained ownership to their state's sanctions. Most of these were run under a colonial charter agreement.
These colonies were founded in the 17th century. Virginia and Province of Maryland.
Companies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the king.
The first joint-stock company in the colonies; founded Jamestown; promised gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity, and passage to the Indies.
Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies received manufactured goods in return.
Made by parliament to hurt Dutch economy, required English crops to be sent only to England or English colonies on ships that were England/English Colony made, had ½ English crew and master.
Dominion of New England
Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies-and later New York and New Jersey-by royal governor Edmund Andros in 1686; dominion reverted to individual colonial governments three years later.
Sir Edmund Andros
English military man with an affiliation to the Church of England. He laid heavy restrictions on the courts the press, and the schools, and revoked all land titles.
Bloodless overthrow of King James II. Established William and Mary as the new leaders.
A poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
This in America began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619, to aid in the production of such lucrative crops as tobacco.
The backbone of New England's economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Part of the Triangle Trade. Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco.