Sports PR Test 1
Terms in this set (103)
a managerial communication-based function designed to identify a sports organization's key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those publics
What is the key function of PR in sport?
Building mutually beneficial relationships between the fans and the sports organization
What is a key public?
a group of people who relate to the sport organization in similar ways
What are the similarities between sports PR and sports marketing?
both deal with target audiences, both have a community relations function and a media relations function
Marketing Mix (4 Ps)
Product, Place, Price, Promotion
advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity
What are the two most common types of PR in sports?
Community Relations, Media Relations
What are some basic skills needed to work in sports PR?
Writing Skills, Public Relations Competencies, Desktop Publishing Capabilities, Internet Related Competencies, Interpersonal Skills
What is media relations?
The relationship between the sports pr team and the media
What is the goal of media relations?
To promote the interests of the sports organization
What is a third party endorsement and why is it important?
Use of a mass media to convey an organization's message
Someone else saying good things about your product
Models of sports media relations
Press agentry: Most favorable publicity as you can
Public Information: Cultivate media relationships
Jobs in sports media relations
College and Professional sports teams
Primary responsibilities of media relations professionals
Cultivating publicity, managing stats for a sports team, managing the media at the game, create publication (media guide), create online content
What is community relations?
Trying to foster good relationships between the community and the media off of the field
Goals of community relations?
Long term investments and good will
Jobs in community relations
Professional sports teams
Corporate Social Responsibility
Other PR programs in sport
Employee Relations, Investor Relations, Consumer Relations, Donor Relations, Government Relations
Value of PR in Sport
- The sports team's main goals are to win and make money
- PR helps generate the money by promoting the organizations products and services
- Generate some kind of marketable product
- Enhance the community attitudes
- Try to save money by using third party credibility
What is a brand?
Something that is unique to your company that helps people identify your company
How is it identified?
Color, Symbols, Icons, Words
How do you place value on a brand?
How easily is it recognized
What are the top 5 sports brands in the world?
Nike, ESPN, Sky Sports, Gatorade, Addidas
Which sport has the highest paid athletes in the world?
Which country has the highest paid athletes?
Who are the worlds top five highest paid athletes?
Floyd Mayweather, Christiano Renaldo, Lebron James, Lionel Messy, Kobe Bryant
Worlds Top Sports Teams?
Real Madrid, Yankees, Manchester United, Barcelona, Dallas Cowboys
Who are the top 5 richest athletes in the world?
Michael Jordan, Michael Schumaker, Vince, Arnold Palmer, Tiger Woods
What is Strategic Management and what are the critical tasks?
SWOT analysis (assessment of internal capabilities and external environment)
Identification of desirable options
Development of long-term and short-term objectives and strategies
Implementation of strategic choices through appropriate resource allocation
What is a SWOT internal/external assessment?
Internal: What competencies and capabilities exist within the organization and how effectively they are being employed to achieve organizational goals.
External: Attempts to gauge what influences the environment of the organization has on its direction and ultimate success
How is SWOT used?
To be a strategic management tool the focus is on assessing the primary functions of the organization
What is a mission statement and what are the components?
Into what the organization does well, who its stakeholders and publics are and how it views its responsibilities to those publics
Products and service offered
Geographic scope of the market
Concern for growth and profitability
Organizational philosophy and values
Company identity and image
Distinctive competencies of the firm
What is a vision statement?
The outlook, or orientation of a program
PR Communications Key Function
The establishment, understanding and monitoring of communication platforms with various publics
PR Communications Involves...
Interaction with a wide range of publics, both internal and external
PR Communications Key Strategy
To assure that a communications system is in a place that provides the appropriate information to the right people at the right time
Grunig's Four Models of PR
One-way models include the following:
Communication is directed toward the public
Two-way models include the following:
Two way symmetrical
Two way a-symmetrical
Research and dialogue
What is trust?
The ability to gain the public's trust establishes long-term relationship
How do you gain trust?
- Two way dialogue
Better to rely on earned media than paid media
- Third party credibility
What are PR communications objectives?
The desire to create, change or reinforce
- Cognitive behavior (easiest to accomplish)
What are stakeholders?
Used to describe people who have a stake in the organization
What is a public?
Subset of people who are within the stakeholder heading
Linkage Model Definitions
- Relationships with people who work for the
- Shares the organizations interests, goals and values
- Special interest groups, community activists
Four Classifications of situational nature of publics
- Don't know what's going on
- Wishy washy
- They know but havent made a commitment
- Aware and involved publics
Six components for evaluating outcomes of long-term relationships
Know the descriptions and examples for each of the above - page 35 (table 2.4)
What is the difference between tactical attributes and strategic attributes?
What is issues management?
The process of prioritizing and proactively addressing public policy and reputation issues that can affect an organization's success
Recognizing concerns before they become concerns/crises/emergencies for the organization
An issue is a matter of mutual concern where there are or may be differing points of view - it's the product of a problem, opportunity, uncertainty or controversy
What are four essential aspects of issues management?
Recognition of issues
Anticipate and analyze issues
Shaping of issues
Develop organizational positions on the issues
Identify key publics affected by the issues
Resolution of issues
Identify the desired behavior of those publics
What is an issue?
Any organizational action that may have a substantive effect on one or more of its publics
What is organizational reputation?
Management of image and reputation
Effort to differentiate an organization or product from others
Reputation is a "companycentric" term associated with credibility and respect
Integrity, reliability, quality
a "consumercentric term" associated with marketing and marketing communication
What is proactive PR?
PR that happens to prevent crises from becoming a problem
What are reputation drivers?
Emotional appeal (admiration, respect, trust)
Products and services (quality, innovation, value)
Vision and leadership (employee productivity, enthusiasm and morale)
Workplace environment (workplace conditions)
Financial performance (profitability, investment potential, competitiveness)
Social responsibility (supporting causes within the community
How can you measure reputation drivers?
Can't put a price on the name of a team, like the Dallas Cowboys or New York Yankees
But you can put the name on clothing and sell at premium pricing
Loyalty equals repeat consumption of a product
Awareness...do people know about your product or organization?
What are some attributes of a brand's strength?
Entertaining to attend or watch
Fans getting others to attend or watch
National or local following
Team success or commitment to winning
Appreciation of the fans
Team loyalty regardless of opponent
Important part of fan routine
"We" rather than "they"
What are PR programs used for?
general goals and ongoing efforts
They foster desirable relationships
They are ongoing - no deadline
What are campaigns used for?
specific purposes rather than general goals
They focus on an issue
They have time lines - they are short term
PR campaign process?
What do you need to find out before you begin the research?
The problems or potential problems...and the opportunities
What is the nature of the public as related to the problem or opportunity
How can research assist PR professionals?
Identifies problems that exist and the history and prevalence of the problem
Defining the magnitude of the problem and its effects on certain publics
Suggesting strategies for solving problem
Testing strategies to determine whether they will produce desired effect
Tracking implementation plans to ensure that design results in execution
Evaluating the results of the strategies implemented
What is primary research?
finding new information not previously discovered
What is secondary research?
looking at organizational records or older research to find patterns, answers - usually better for organizations
What is formal research?
purposeful and systematic
What is informal research?
random in nature - can't be generalized to populations
What is qualitative research?
descriptive and more in-depth - uses language instead of numbers
What is quantitative research?
numerical and statistical findings
What are three common research methods in PR? What are advantages and disadvantages for each?
1. Interviews and observations: (qualitative)
One-on-one conversations in person, via phone or online
In-depth information gained (not "yes" or "no" answers
Can hear answers and see body language
Require lots of time
Goal is to create rapport so respondent will open up and explain answers
Must document results (record or write or both)
2. Focus groups (qualitative)
about 10 people in a group
Must conduct at least two per public
Participants should come from one public
Led by a moderator
In-depth information and observation of body language
Allow participants to react to each other...spurs conversation and ideas
Costly if professional moderator is used
Difficult to manage conversation
Moderator bias - people might not answer how they want because of peer pressure or embarrassment @ being different
3. Surveys - (one of the most common methods used in sports PR)
Can put findings into statistical data
Can reduce bias
Are anonymous so answers may be more truthful
Can measure changes over time
Don't tell the researcher "why"
Low response rate
Can be expensive * see next page
Questions may be confusing to respondents and wrong answers are recorded
Three types of surveys:
What type of research sampling is best and why?
What type of sample size is best and why?
Simple Random Sampling because that is a true representation of the population
Issue with response rates?
make multiple contacts with respondents to make sure they return, complete survey
Low response rates are a serious threat for surveys - especially mailed surveys - online is better
What are goals and how do you write them?
desired outcome of the campaign
How to write them:
Begin with the word "to" and then a "verb"
Define an outcome you want to achieve
Specify the level of outcome (%)
Specify a date
What are objectives?
support the goal with specific measures you can achieve and then measure
What is integrated communication?
The use of PR along with advertising, direct marketing, promotion and other tools to shape public opinion and deliver audience action
What does PR build?
What does advertising defend?
What are five characteristics of publics?
1. Distinguishable (demographics or psychographics)
2. Homogenous (don't know each other but possess similar qualities)
3. Important (capable of affecting the attainment of organizational goals)
4. Large enough to matter (if it's large enough to affect the organization...it's a distinct public)
5. Reachable (you can reach them with a message)
What is an opinion leader and why are opinion leaders important in PR?
Reaching opinion leaders in each public can affect other members of that public
What is a strategy? What must you remember when writing one?
Once you research and define publics...you're ready to define strategies to achieve campaign goals
From easiest to hardest to achieve:
Exposure (hear or see message)
Retention (remember message)
Cognition (understand message)
Attitude (favorably evaluate message)
Behavior (act differently in response to the message)
Is it easier to change behavior or to achieve exposure?
Message selection concepts
- People are most likely to pay attention to messages that relate to subject matter of existing interest
- People interpret the messages through life experiences, values and attitudes
- People's tendency to remember messages that are consistent with their existing attitudes
- People avoid or minimize the credibility of message that conflicts with their current values and attitudes
The best messages contain what?
Cognitive - commonly understood meaning of a message
Affective - they have emotional substance
The best messages contain both meanings
What is a channel?
Delivery system that carry your messages to your publics
What kind of budgets do PR programs and PR campaigns use and what costs are associated with campaign budgets?
PR programs are continuous and usually use standard budgeting practices
- Percentage of sales used for programs
- Increase of last year's budget
Campaigns are harder to budget - usually budgeted by:
- Using whatever money is available in the regular budget
- Gaining special allocation of funds based on the specific needs of the campaign (preferred)
Campaign planners have two types of costs:
1) Human resources necessary to plan and execute campaign
2) Hard costs of strategies (research, communication costs, evaluation
What should you do during the execution phase of the campaign?
The actual communication and launch of the campaign
Specifies schedules and sequences of events and identifies which people carry out which tasks.
Three Types of Evaluation
1. Evaluation of Execution:
2. Evaluation of Media Coverage
3. Evaluation of Impact
Before hiring a PR firm, what are the considerations?
Strategic insight and counseling capabilities
Website capabilities that benefit sports organizations
2.Speed and user choice
3.Multiple content types
4.Transactions / e-commerce
5.Computational functions / statistics, etc.
6.Interactive / connects fans to organization and each other (social media)
7.Adaptability and customizable
1.Education (rules of the game, etc)
3.News & information
5.Web portals (links to other sites)
8.Personal and artistic expression
Website development considerations
1.Goals & objectives:
-What's the purpose of the website? E-commerce? Entertainment?
-Who will design and manage it?
-Decide how much technical assistance you will need
-Can you do it yourself? You'll have more control of information posted and speed of posts
2.Always contact the services references regarding price, support and service - and look at those sites
3.Domain name or website address?
-The simpler the better
Website design considerations
2.How should content be organized?
3.Create a structure for content
4.Put valuable content on every page
5.Make a good first impression (home page)
6.Design with restraint and common sense
7.Make navigation clear and consistent and easy
8.Continually review design and content
9.Always keep the user in mind
Why Track Users?
Important assessment tool - tracking user navigation helps you understand users' wants / needs...can help you redesign
What is persistent navigation?
information that should be on every page
Website promotion considerations
If the purpose is e-commerce, promotion is key
-Use the site address on all organizational materials
-Tickets, receipts, business cards, billboards and onsite signs
-Use offline promotions to drive website traffic
Advertise on other sites used by target customers
-Try to get users registered so you can interact with them
-You can also tailor promotional activity to the customers
Search engine optimization (SEO)
1.Content is more important than aesthetics in website rankings
2.Content is based on keywords and phrases
3.Know the target audience and the types of phrases they are likely to use
4.Use competitors' websites to look at keywords
5.Interior links that connect pages within the site and the quality of other sites that link to a site are important
6.RSS (really simple syndication) feeds can help ranking
7.Allows website to provide subscribers with automatic updates directly - they don't have to visit site
8.Using blogs and site directories can create exposure and help rankings
9.Using paid search marketing - pay a search engine to have your website appear when various keywords are entered
What to look for in website assessment?
Website assessment should be tied to its purposes, goals and objectives
Websites and media relations
provide what the media needs
Websites and community relations
Offering services designed to maintain or enhance a sense of community and social responsibility among stakeholders
-Webcast audio or video
-Guest registry to create online community
Key for PR is content
- Job listings
- Event calendars
It must be updated regularly!
Rules of e-philanthropy
1. Don't be invisible
2. It takes know-how and vision
3. It's all about the donor
4. Keep savvy donors; stay fresh and current
5. Integrate your site into everything you do
6. Don't trade your mission for a shopping mall
7. Ethics, privacy and security are not buzzwords
8. The Internet can build a community
9. Online success=targeting
10. There are no shortcuts...and it's not about money
What is viral marketing?
word-of-mouth marketing, messages passed from donor to donor or customer to customer
PR problems with Internet
Always monitor the Internet
- The media monitor it!
Cameras make it hard to control organizational image
- Social media posts can be dangerous
- Especially when athletes post
Sometimes the target audience doesn't use the technology (phone apps, etc)