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Arts and Humanities
COMD 352 Assesment & Appraisal
Terms in this set (38)
What is appraisal?
the 1st of 2 phases of assessment; refers to the collection of data
True or false?
Screening assessments are NOT always completely reliable; can pass but may still have an impairment.
Screening assessments are NOT appropriate in all settings: some school districts do not allow.
What is a comprehensive evaluation?
a more complete data collection from which a diagnoses can be determined.
Comprehensive evaluation consists of:
1. Articulation test and stimulability measures
2. Conversational speech sample in varying contexts
3. Hearing screening/test (peripheral/oral mech)
4. examination of speech mechanism
5. expressive vs receptive language test
-possible additional measures (cognitive + perceptual test)
An articulation test aims to __________ speech by _______________________________ through the use of _______ or __________. Usually test _____________ in _____________, ____________, and ____________ word position.
-aims to elicit
-by spontaneously naming
-tests in initial, medial, and final consonant position
Advantages of articulation test:
1. Takes a short amount of time to give
2. Result in quantifiable list of "incorrect" sound
productions in different word positions
3. Can result in a standardized score: clinician can compare results to other children in same age group
• Not used in some settings, including public
Disadvantages of articulation test:
1. Often uses isolated words: does not necessarily equate to production in natural, running speech
2. Limited in info about client's entire phonological system
- Often not comprehensive enough to do a thorough phonological analysis
3. Limited in testing all possible GAE sounds in all possible contexts
- Most do not test vowels
- Most do not test many consonant clusters
4. Sounds are not context controlled: not consistent in the type of sound that follows or comes before each target sound
5. Only looks at performance at one moment in time: performance may be different at different times
Types of analysis- articulation vs phonological. Independent of type, most use same manner of examination format:
Elicit spontaneous picture naming
Because most tests do not sample the most frequently misarticulated sounds in a large enough number of contexts, additional ____________ of contexts may be needed to supplement later.
ex: if a child is struggling with /r/, you would probe to see if they can produce it correctly in any context.
If a word contains an error in production, transcribe the_________________.
transcribe the WHOLE word
If articulation test requires probing, you can supplement the test with the following additional contexts of the error sound (s):
- develop your own list of words
-use tests that are made for deep testing
Standardization is not needed in _________________. If using standardized score, consider relevancy and __________________ of _________________________.
- not needed in public schools
-relevancy and validity
-of normative sample
Types of scoring articulation test
1. Two- way scoring
2. Five-way scoring
3. Phonetic transcription (best way!)
What is two-way scoring?
It's helpful for ___________________ or documenting _______________________.
However, it does NOT give enough info about ___________________.
production is marked either as right or wrong (+ or -)
-Helpful screening or documenting therapy progress.
- not enough info about nature of errors
Five-way scoring is based on which 5 parameters?
Phonetic transcription requires the most __________________. It is a __________________ of productions rather than judgements of production. It is very precise and gives the greatest amount of _____________________. It is the most ________________________ way to communicate information among clinicians
-requires the most clinical skill
-description of productions rather than judgements
-gives greatest amount of information
-most universally accepted way
What is stimulability testing?
Tests the client's ability to correctly produce the previously misarticulated sound when stimulated by the clinician.
In stimulability tests, sound is elicited in ____________________ first and then if produced correctly in isolation, sound will be elicited in ____________________ to find ______________________ context. There is __________________ in belief of importance of this test among clinicians.
-elicited in isolation first
-then elicited in syllables
-to find assistive/facillitative context
-there is variability in belief
A spontaneous speech sample gives additional information about the ___________, _______________, _____________ abilities of the client.
voice, prosodic, and language abilities
A speech sample is considered to be more ______________ and therefore more _______________. It helps __________________ errors at higher levels and determine the level of ____________________.
-more natural therefore, more valid
-helps "tease out" errors
-determine level of intelligibility
speech sample should begin with an _______________ test so
that clinician can plan for situations to ___________________ errors found on test.
-begin with articulation test
-plan to target errors during speech sample
A speech sample should be at least _______ to ______ words. However, ______ to ________ words would be best.
-at least 50-100 words
- 200-250 is better
You can plan diversity in a speech sample by varying communication situations through different communication ____________ and different communication ____________.
-diversity= different communication contexts and partners.
Accuracy of speech sample analysis is dependent on __________ of __________. Ways to improve quality include using an _______________________ and _____________ the microphone 6 to ____ inches away from client.
-analysis dependent on quality of recording.
-use external microphone and position microphone
- 6 to 8 inches
Clinicians should __________ over any possible utterances that may be difficult to __________ later. This requires _____________ the correct target production but in the most _____________ way possible. (that way when they go back to review it later they'll know what the child was trying to say)
-difficult to understand later
-requires repeating the correct target
-in the most natural way possible
Simultaneously trasncribing helps with _____________ and helps with ____________ to transcribe recording later.
-time needed to transcribe after
Hearing screening requires testing pure tones at _____dB at , _____K, _______K_, and ______K.
-1K, 2K, 4K
A speech mechanism look at _______ and ____________ of oral mechanism. Determines any gross difficulties that may signal organic cause for speech difficulties. However, no abnormalities ___________________ equate to no organic cause.
-structure and function
Is concern is strictly articulation, it is very important to conduct a _______________ to rule out that _________________ disorder exists.
-conduct language test
-rule out language disorder
Language sample screens which areas of language?
Semantics: expressive vocabulary test & language sample
Syntax/Morphology: full test or subtest & language sample
Pragmatics: language sample in varying contexts
A comprehensive language assesment is needed if area of concern _________________ or if screening reveals weaknesses.
Auditory perceptual testing
helps determine whether child can ________________ between ________________. Can be tested at ____________ or ________ level.
-between phonemic contrasts
-word or sentence
is usually only given when _____________ is in question. . If IQ falls out of normal range, it can help estimate child's level of _____________ to help determine if a speech/language disorder is _________ to other difficulties.
-when IQ level in in question
-level of functioning
-secondary to other difficulties
Some school districts have a policy in which the school psych will do a ____________ assessment every time a child is refered for a _________________ disorder.
-cognitive assessment anytime child is refereed for language disorder
Common causes for child with emerging phonology, that is deviant or severely restricted/delayed for age:
1. At risk birth
2. Other developmental disorders
3. Acquired disorders
4. late talker
When should you conduct an independent analysis?
when a child has very limited phonological emergence (production).
During a independent analysis....a clinician only takes a client's ________________ into account and does not _________________ them to the _____________. The goal is then to take data on what _________/________ shapes are present and work on ________ phonological ______________ BEFORE comparing to adult form.
-does NOT compare them to adult form.
-take data on present sounds/syllable shapes (cv, cvc)
-work on expanding phonological inventory
Severely _____________ children make transcribing sample very difficult. In order to help with that, choose a topic that uses a large amount of ___________ such as talking about a routine and __________ the utterance.
-large amount of structure
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