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33 terms

Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
supplies the blood with oxygen for transportation to the cells in all parts of the body
Nasal Septum
partition or wall of cartilage divides nose into two hollow spaces called nasal cavities
Nasolacrimal ducts
drain tears from the eye into the nose to provide additional moisture for the air
Mucous
produced by the mucous membranes, also helps trap pathogens (germs) and dirt
Cilia
Tiny hair like structures in nasal cavity. Filter inhaled air to trap dust and pathogens as they enter nose so trapped particles can be pushed toward the esophagus and swallowed
Olfactory receptors
for sense of smell are located in the nose
Sinuses
Cavities in skull and around nasal areas, Connected to nasal cavity by short ducts, Lined with mucous membrane that warms and moistens air, Also provide resonance (sound) for the voice
Pharynx
also called the throat, Lies directly behind the nasal cavities,
As air leaves the nose it enters the pharynx
Nasopharynx
Upper portion behind nasal cavity, . Pharyngeal tonsils, or adenoids, and auditory tube openings are located here
Oropharynx
Middle section located behind oral cavity, Receives air from nasopharynx and food and air from mouth
Laryngopharynx
Bottom section of pharynx, . Branches into trachea, which carries air to and from the lungs, and esophagus, tube that carries food to stomach
Larynx
Voice Box
Lies between pharynx and trachea
Has framework of cartilage commonly called the Adam's apple
Contains two folds called vocal cords
Vocal Cords
Lies between pharynx and trachea, during breathing, the cords are separated to let air pass, during speech, they close together, and sound is produced as air is expelled from the lungs causing the cords to vibrate against eachother.
glottis
opening to the vocal cords
Epiglottis
Special piece of cartilage, Leaf like structure that closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing, Prevents food and liquids from entering the respiratory track
Trachea
Windpipe, Tube extending from larynx to the center of the chest,Series of C-shaped cartilages, which are open on the dorsal, or back, surface, help keep trachea open
Bronchi
two large tubes, which branch out from the trachea and convey air into the lungs
bronchioles
smaller subdivisions of the bronchi
alveoli
also known as air sacs, small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchiole, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Lungs
essential organs of respiration
Right Lung
three lobes,superior, middle, and inferior
Left Lung
two lobes due to space restrictions
Pleura
thin, moist and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs
Parietal pleura
outer layer of the pleura, lines the walls of the thoracic cavity and is attached to the chest wall
Visceral pleaura
inner layer of the pleura that covers each lung, attached directly to lung
pleural cavity
thin fluid-filled space between the parietal and visceral pleura, acts as a lubricant, allowing the membranes to slide easily over eachother during respiration
diaphragm
dome shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen, it is the contraction and relaxation of this muscle that makes breathing possible
Ventilation
process of breathing, moving air in and out of the lungs
respiration
exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide that is essential to life. consists of one inhalation and one exhalation
Inhalation
act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward expanding the thoracic cavity
exhalation
act of breathing out, as the diaphragm relaxes, it moves upward, causing the thoracic cavity to become narrower, this action forces air out of the lungs
External Respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and bloodstream (inhale, exhale)
Internal Respiration
Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between tissue cells and the bloodstream (cellular respiration)