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PSYC 337 - QUIZ AND ESSAY 3
Chapters 5 & 6
Terms in this set (25)
What was Titchener's main focus in his study of psychology and how was this different from Wundt? (see PP)
He believed the study of psychology was the study of the structure of consciousness.
He refined Wundt's introspection technique; intentionally participating and experimenting on the study of structuralism (whereas Wundt did not).
On what U.S. campus did Titchener lead research and study in psychology?
Cornell University (New York)
What was Titchener like as a person and how did this affect the lives of his students and the functioning of his psychology department?
2. Fluent in many languages (Latin, Greek, German, French, Italian, and Dutch*)
Attitude towards students:
4. Promoting their interests
Functioning of department:
1. Was elected to the APA by the charter members in 1892, he resigned shortly thereafter because the association declined to expel a member whom Titchener accused of plagiarism.
2. Co-workers - Somewhat strained:
A friend paid Titchener's dues for many years just to continue being a member of the meetings
What was Titchener's attitude towards women and how did this impact his running of the psychology department?
Attitude towards women:
Was helpful in allowing women to be enrolled in his classes and become a part of his faculty, however he denied them access to his Experimentalist meetings he'd have as they were considered 'too pure to smoke'.
There were many protest against his rule of women being banned from Experimentalist meetings, it was only until 2 years after Titchener died that the Experimentalist organization was reborn as the Society of Experimental Psychologists and admitted women members (Washburn being one of the 2 female charter members).
Who was Margaret Floy Washburn and what accomplishments is she noted for?
1. Titchener's student
2. First woman to get a PhD in Psychology (1894)
3. Advocated education and choice for woman (first female psychologist elected to the National Academy of Sciences and also served as the president of the APA)
4. Studied comparative psychology:
a. Animals compared to people
5. Wrote an important book on comparative psychology,The Animal Mind:
a. Reviewed the research
b. Excluded research using questionable methodology
What were Titchener's definitions for: stimulus error, consciousness, mind, and experiment?
Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus/object being observed (e.g. Calling an apple an apple, instead of reporting their color, feel, brightness, etc.)
a. The sum of our experiences as they exist at a given time
b. Has 3 elementary states:
The sum of an individual's experiences accumulated over a lifetime.
Difference between Mind and Consciousness?
Consciousness involves the mental processes occurring at the moment, whereas the mind involves the total amount of these processes over the course of your life.
Titchener's use of detailed, qualitative, subjective reports of his subjects' mental activities during the act of introspecting.
What was Titchener's attitude toward applied psychology?
He didn't believe psychology should be about applied topics.
He believed psychology is about how humans experience the physical world; it's to figure out the laws that govern the way humans experience the physical world.
What were Titchener's 3 goals for psychology and his 3 elementary states of consciousness?
1. Reduce conscious processes to their simplest components
2. Determine laws by which these elements of consciousness were associated
3. Connect the elements with their physiological conditions
States of consciousness:
What were the criticisms and contributions of Introspection and structuralism?
1. Can't be done objectively
2. Is really just retrospection
1. Lack of agreement and replicability
2. Lack of practical use and application
3. Artificiality of reductionism
What were the various preferences for gathering information for memory listed by Titchener? (see Munger)
1. Questionary (Questionnaire)
2. Memory Apparatus
3. "Speaking" tube
What were the differences between structuralism and functionalism?
a. Is known to be a part of experimental psychology
b. Focuses on different brain elements and their capacities
a. Introduced as a counter-argument to structuralism
b. Focuses on the adaptations of the human mind to different environments
How did the context and Zeitgeist support Darwin's development of the theory of evolution?
Culture: The social Zeitgeist was being transformed by the Industrial Revolution. Values, relationships, and cultural norms, constant for generations, were suddenly disrupted as masses of people migrated from rural areas and small towns to the rapidly developing urban manufacturing centers, thus changing their ideals on less traditional means.
Impact: The growing domination of science permeated popular attitudes at the time, people were less content to base their ideas about human nature and about society on what the Bible or ancient authorities claimed were true. Instead they were ready, even eager, to shift their allegiance and put their faith in science
How is the Lamarckian behavioral theory of evolution different from the natural selection method presented by Darwin?
We will use Giraffes as an example to explain this:
Why do giraffes have long necks?
Lamarckian Behavioral Theory:
In the very beginning, giraffes naturally had short necks and they used to eat leaves from short trees. Then, trees started to grow taller and taller and giraffes couldn't reach the leaves, so they had to stretch their necks higher and higher to reach them and eat. In the end, giraffes evolved from short to long necks throughout the course of time. (natural/history)
Darwin's Natural Selection Method:
Long-necked giraffes and short-necked giraffes co-existed, together, but short-necked giraffes disappeared because they were so hungry and couldn't reach the leaves from the ever-growing tall trees, so they died, while long-necked giraffes survived. This is why we only see giraffes with long necks, nowadays. (survival of the fittest)
What were the names of Darwin's publications? What did he write about?
1. On the Origins of Species (1858): Exactly what the title read; the origins of species.
2. The Descent of Man (1871): Gathered evidence for human evolution from lower life forms, emphasizing the similarity between animal and human mental processes.
3. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872): Explained emotional expressions as remnants of movements that once had served some practical function.
4. Mind (1877): Also known as "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant". Illustrated Darwin's thesis that children pass through a series of developmental stages that parallel the stages of human evolution.
a. Recapitulation - a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching, goes through stages resembling or representing successive adult stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors
What impact did Darwin's writings have on the future direction of psychology?
a. Darwin introduced his ideas before Wundt started his psychology department, so his ideas took time to influence the scientific world, and with it, the psychologists.
b. His theory stated that humans and other species were equalized in some way
c. Focused on adapting and functioning in new environments
d. Appreciated variability and individual differences
e. Used methods that work to investigate
What psychological topics did Sir Francis Galton focus on and give prominence to?
1. Mental Inheritance
2. Individual differences inhuman capacities
What was the theme of the book "Hereditary Genius"?
"Eminent men have eminent sons."
Essentially, geniuses beget geniuses, and it was encouraged for 'fit' individuals to birth more, whereas to discourage the births from the 'unfit'.
What is eugenics and how did Galton propose it be used?
Eugenics: the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
He hoped it would be used in controlling the 'improvement of qualities' of the overall human race.
Which statistical principles were promoted by Galton and what did they measure? (the normal curve, mean and standard deviation, correlation, and regression towards the mean)
He promoted and founded one of science's most important measures: the correlation.
His promotion of the correlation was based on observation that stated inherited characteristics tend to regress towards the mean.
Galton was impressed by Adolph Quetelet's use of the normal curve, and assumed that there were be similar results if he were to measure mental characteristics.
Galton suggested that any large set of measurements or values for human characteristics could be meaningfully described by two numbers: the average value of the distribution (the arithmetic mean) and the dispersion or range of variation around this average value (the standard deviation).
What abilities did Galton measure for his mental tests?
Mixture of all 3
What role did Romanes play in the study of animal psychology?
He formalized and systematized the study of animal intelligence.
His friend, Charles Darwin, chose Romanes to carry out the study of animal behavior, giving him his notebooks on animal behavior and wanting him to apply the theory of evolution to the mind as Darwin had applied it to the body.
What is introspection by analogy?
A technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer's mind also occur in the animal's mind.
What is the "law of parsimony"?
AKA Lloyd Morgan's canon
The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process.
What did Morgan contribute to the study of animal psychology?
Mostly known for:
a. He recognized the weaknesses in Romanes' anecdotal and introspection by analogy methods.
b. He proposed the law of parsimony to counteract the prevailing tendency to attribute excessive intelligence to animals.
He believed that most animal behavior resulted from learning or association based on sensory experience; this type of learning was a lower-level process than rational thought or ideation.
Also Known for:
Was the first scientist to conduct large scale experimental studies in animal psychology.
ESSAY: Discuss why Galton is known as the father of eugenics and is still credited with making significant contributions to the science of psychology. Why do modern day psychologists find eugenics to be unethical?
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