67 terms

COMD 2050-Test 1-Lane

LSU COMD
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

All vertebrates can produce...
sound and vocal patterning
Language is ______ years old
50,000-100,000
Divine Source
Language given by a higher power
Bible
Adam and Eve were given language
Hindu
Brahma's wife gave language
Children and language
would naturally speak the god given language
Natural Sound Source "Bow Wow Theory"
words developed from imitation of sounds in environment
Onomatopoeia
word that sounds like the thing it's describing
Social interaction source ("yo-he-ho" theory)
group of people having to coordinate a joint effort during physical task and using a series of grunts or curses
Physical adaptation source
Physical features particularly adapted for human communication
Human Teeth
Are upright, not slanted upright, and are the same height
Human Tongue
Muscular, making movements more facilitated
Human Lips
More flexible, more muscles
Human Mouth
small and pressure can be built up by blocking the passage to the nasal cavity
Larynx
is in lower position than monkeys, so humans have a longer cavity
Larynx disadvantage
We can choke easier
Tool-making source
Humans started making tools two million years ago-two different items made different sounds
Human brain
Lateralized, each side does different things
Left side of brain
Motor and communication skills
Genetic Source
Humans have an innate capacity for language
2 types of signals
Communicative and informative signals
Language Displacement
IT isn't restricted to the present. We can talk of things that we believe in (tooth fairy) but don't really see.
Language is productive
-Infinite number of messages (meaning) from basic elements (sounds)
-Embedded clauses
-Animal communication has fixed reference
Language is used to think and talk about the language itself (reflexivity)
We can talk about the past and present, animals cannot.
Symbols are...
arbitrary! They have nothing to do with the actual word or action they describe
Duality
symbols can be broken down into smaller, meaningless parts that can form sounds or words when put together (e, a, t == "eat")
"Are you going to put that there?"
More than one meaning can be conveyed by a symbol or group of symbols (can be determined by body language or intonation, etc.)
Cultural Transmission
People learn their individual language from other people in their culture. Different parts of language changes over time. (i.e. dating, hook up)
Communication
transfer/exchange of information, conveying a message
Language
conventional, rule governed communication system (uniquely human)
Speech
human vocal communication
Linguistics
scientific study of language
Linguist
people who study linguistics; they discover and describe the rules of linguistics
Animals and human language
They may be able to understand it with practice and reinforcement
Chimp-Gua
Gua could understand 100 words but not speak them
Chimp-Viki
Unsuccessful attempt to train Viki to speak
Viki
-Treated like an infant (dressed up, in crib, etc.)
-Given speech therapy
-Chimps do not have physical apparatus for speech
Chimp-Sarah
Taught by the Premack couple
One of 4/9 chimps exposed to language
Used plastic shapes to represent words, and sequence to form "sentences."
Treated like a chimp, kept in a cage
Ultimately, the Premack's decided they no longer wanted to study chimps in 1987
Chimp-Lana
LANA = LANguage Analogue project
Dr. Duane Rumbaugh used a keyboard linked to a computer to teach artificial language Yerkish (lexigrams)
Lana could discriminate between Lexigrams (word sequencing, spontaneous utterances)
Criticisms of Sara and Lana
Using certain symbols doesn't mean they understand what they mean, it just means a reward.
Chimp-Washoe
-Gardner couple taught her to use nearly 350 manual signs of American Sign Language (ASL)
-Raised like a child in a signing environment
-Used more than 100 signs and some two-word combinations (productivity!):
-more fruit, open food drink, water bird
Gorilla-Koko
1972
Female Gorilla studied by Penny Patterson (grad student)
Taught signs, modeled after Gardner's work with Washoe
Able to understand 1,000 signs, 2,000 spoken English words
Chimp-Nim Chimsky
1973
Born in captivity, lived in Manhattan apt "like a human"
Project Nim led by Psychologist Herbert Terrace and aimed to show that chimps could learn human language (specifically syntax)
Opposed Noam Chomsky's theory
Humans are 'wired' to learn language
Extension of Project Washoe; Nim taught ASL signs
1980-Terrance Reaction
Project Nim was failure-Nim was just repeating things in order to get food.
-word order was inconsistent, etc.
Undermined project Washoe
Reaction to Terrance's Declaration
Gardners argued that Washoe would produce signs without being cued and in the absence of humans.
Washoe had opportunities for natural, communicative interaction, unlike Nim.
Nim's caretakers were not fluent in ASL and didn't have consistent teachers.
Kanzi
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh unintentionally exposed baby Kanzi to symbols of Yerkish while attempting to teach them to the mother, Matata, a bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee).
Matata didn't do well, but Kanzi learned and used 250 symbols through observation and exposure rather than direct teaching
Articulatory Phonetics
How speech sounds are produced, or articulated
Auditory phonetics
physical properties of speech sounds (sound waves, frequency, amplitude)
Acoustic phonetics
perception of sounds
Voiceless
ssss ("sssnake," sunglasssses")
Voiced
zzzzz ("zzzzea's," zzzzebra")
Bilabials
lips: [p] [b] [m] [w]
Labiodentals
upper teeth and lower lip: [f] [v]
Dentals/Interdentals
tongue tip between teeth [th] [theta] [eth]
alveolars
tongue tip touches alveolar ridge [T] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [r]
Phonology
The study of the sound system of a language,
description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language
Phonology is based on...
a theory of what native speaker unconsciously knows about the sound patterns of his/her language
Phonemes
Separated by slash marks, the letter representation of the phones
Contrastive property
A change in one phoneme could change the meaning of the word
Phonemes that share features are members of...
a natural class of sounds
Phones
The sounds that come out of your mouth
Allophone
More than one phone of a phoneme
Constraints
Sounds that aren't permitted in a certain language. "ps" isn't recognized in English
Nucleus (vowel)
V
Coda
C
Assimilation
An aspect of one sound in a sequence is taken or "copied" by the other-"hafta" "kinda"
Elision
not producing a sound that should be in the word "aspecks" instead of "aspects"