Body shape: oval to round, caudal fin is morphologically formed for fast swimming

example: Tuna
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Terms in this set (140)
Pelvic fin type: ventrally and towards caudal fin Functions for stabilizing fish while swimmingAbdominal pelvic finPelvic fin type: anterior or cranial, below pectorals Associated with deep-bodied fishThoracic pelvic finPelvic fin type: in line with operculum, in front of pectoral fin Helps support body of some benthic fishesJugular pelvic finPectoral fins are placed ________ in deep-bodied fisheshigh on bodyPectoral fins are placed ______________ of body in rover-predatorson or below midlineName some modifications purposes of pectoral finsgliding walking jumping clinging tactileGive 2 examples of fish with specialized dorsal finsRemora: sucking disc Anglerfish: rod & lureHomocercal caudal fin2 equal lobesHeterocercalUnequal lobesCaudal fin type: for active fish which use sustained swimming a great deal the shape provides thrust with minimum dragForkedCaudal fin type: for very fast swimming fish such as TunaLunateCaudal fin type (2): for deep bodied, surface, bottom, or sit-in-wait fishesTruncate or RoundedDescribe the inferior mouth type and give an example fish-downward pointing -for bottom feeding -ex. SturgeonDescribe the subterminal mouth type and give an example fish-downward pointing BUT just short of the end of the head -for bottom feeding and open water -ex. sharksDescribe the terminal mouth type and give an example fish-at the extreme front of the head -for feeding within the mid-water column -ex. salmonDescribe the superior mouth type and give an example fish-upward pointing -for surface feeding -ex. Betta fishMaxillaback part of upper jawPremaxillafront part of upper jawMandiblefront part of upper jawGive an example of a rover-predatorSalmon TunaGive an example of a lie-in-wait fishNorthern PikeGive an example of a surface-oriented fishFlying fish Betta fishWhat term describes this fish: -fusiform body shape -terminal mouth -forked tailRover-predatorWhat term describes this fish: -sagittiform body shape -large terminal mouth -tend to hide in reeds or have cryptic coloration -large caudal finLie-in-wait predatorWhat term describes this fish: -superior mouth -dorso-ventrally flattened head with large eyes -posteriorly place dorsal finSurface orientedWhat term describes this fish: -it is also a rover-predator -flat head -enlarged pectoral fins -many have barbelsBottom roverWhat term describes this fish: -large pectoral fins -modified pelvics to attach to bottomBottom clingersWhat term describes this fish: -lack clinging devices -elongate or flattened body -live between rocks or substrateBottom hidersWhat term describes this fish: -compressiform -body depth >⅓ the length -long dorsal and anal fins -pectorals are high on bodyDeep bodiedWhat term describes this fish: -anguilliform -long body, tapering or rounded tail -paired fins are absent or reducedEel-likeWhat does the axial skeleton consist of?-skull -vertebrae -ribsWhat does the appendicular skeleton consist of?-appendages (fins) -fin supportsEach vertebra has a dorsal _______ arch to hold the spinal cordneuralThe ventral _________ arch holds the blood vesselshemalWhat does the skull do?-protect the brain -base for action of jaws -base for support of gill structuresA shark skull consists of the ___________ and a series of cartilages that support the mouth/gills called a __________.neurocranium splanchnocraniumThe upper jaw in a shark skull is called the _________palatoquadrateThe lower jaw in a shark skull is called the __________Meckel's cartilage(Sharks) Which arch attaches the lower jaw to the skull?Hyoid arch(Sharks) Which arch(es) supports the gills?Branchial archesUrostyleattaches the spinal column to fin raysSeptaseparates upper epaxial muscles from lower hypaxial musclesConstant swimmers have a higher proportion of _____ musclesredWhich fish has a higher percentage of red muscle? Tuna or PikeTuna (30%) Pike (5%)Which color muscle is associated with being highly aerobic, highly vascularized, twitch muscles?Red muscleWhich color muscle is associated with being intermediate in metabolic activity, and is usually in bands next to red muscle?Pink muscleWhich color muscle is associated with bursts of speed, having no myoglobin, anaerobic metabolism, and few mitochondria?White muscleSubcarangiformundulations are between ½ and 1 full wavelength (salmonids)Carangiformundulations are less than ½ a wavelengthDescribe a thunniform swimming fish-large, slim, lunate caudal fin -undulate a narrow caudal peduncleDescribe an ostraciiform swimming fish-box-like fish -slow swimming speedsWhy is water temperature a factor in the energetics of swimming?-warmer water is less viscous -warm swimming muscles exert more force per contractionFish need _______ buoyancy so that they are not constantly expending energy to fight _______neutral gravityTrue or false? Tissues of fish generally have densities less than waterFalse They have greater density than waterSharks use which low-density compound to reduce their own density?lipids: oils, squalenePelagic sharks have reduced ______ and rely more on a larger liver for ___________.fins buoyancyHow do fish fill their Physostomous swim bladder?By gulping air at the surface, and forcing it through their pneumatic ductWhy don't deep-diving fish have Physostomous swim bladders?The swim bladder collapses with depthPhysostomous swim bladderA swim bladder with a pneumatic ductPhysoclistous swim bladderno connection between the swim bladder and gutHow did fish fill their Physoclistous swim bladder?O2 diffuses from blood into swim bladderA deep-diving fish would have which time of swim bladder?PhysoclistousWhat are some other uses of the swim bladder?-sound production -sound reception -breathingEctothermcold-bloodedHeat is lost through ______ and _______.skin and gillsExplain behavioural thermoregulationFish move from colder to warmer water, and vice versaExplain how Tuna behaviourally thermoregulateThey heat up after rapid swimming and then dive deeper to cool offExplain physiological thermoregulationto internally regulate temperatures either by muscle contraction or heat exchange in the bloodHeterothermyfishes that maintain part of their body at elevated temperaturesWhich muscle type generates a lot of heat?Red swimming musclesA ______ connects the muscles to the blood vessels involved in heat exchangereteWhich system increases the efficiency of temperature exchange?Counter-current systemWhich type of tissue allows fish to maintain temperature in the eyes and brain?thermogenic brown tissueWhy is the Opah fish considered to be "warm blooded"? How does it generate heat?It is able to heat up its entire body, not just a few organs Generates heat from the pectoral fin musclesFishes need to maintain a certain ______ concentration in their tissues at all times.saltWhich fish does not osmoregulate at all? What term describes this characteristic?Hagfish OsmoconformerAt what concentration do marine elasmobranchs maintain the salt in their bodies?⅓ of the concentration of the seawaterTrue or false: sharks are hyperosmoticTrueDo marine teleosts drink large or small amounts?large amountsMarine teleosts use ________ to remove salt.chloride cells in gillsDo freshwater teleosts urinate large or small amounts? And is this urine dilute or concentrate?large amounts diluteFreshwater teleosts use _______ to recover salt.Chloride cells(Freshwater) Na + is on the outside of the cell moving in, and _______ is on the inside and moving out.NH4+Name 2 benefits (3 total) of ionic exchange1. Toxic NH3 eliminated from body 2. HCO3- eliminated from body 3. Maintains pH balanceStenohaline & examplefish that cannot tolerate a wide fluctuation in salinity ex. hagfishEuryhaline & examplefish that are tolerant of changes in salinity ex. lampreys, salmonDiadromousfish that spend part of life in freshwater and part in salt waterThe thin-walled collection site for bloodsinus venosusBlood passes from sinus venosus into the _______atriumBlood pumped from atrium into _________ventricleHagfish have 5-_____ pairs of gill pouches5-15Lampreys have ____ pairs of gill pouches7True or false: most sharks have 6 gill slitsFalse, they have 5What separates the filaments in sharks' gills?Gill septumTrue or false: septa in bony fish are mostly reduced.TrueDescribe the first step in the ventilation of gills-Opercular valve shut -mouth opens -floor of mouth lowered -water enters mouthDescribe the second step in the ventilation of gills-opercular valve opened -mouth closed -floor of mouth raised -water forced out past gillsRam ventilationfish swims with mouth open, water flows freely over the gillsCutaneous respirationrespiration across the skinList the 5 main methods of air breathing1. Modified gills 2. Moist cutaneous skin 3. Mouth 4. Gut 5. Lungs & swimbladderFunction of the olfactory lobesSmellFunction of the optic lobesVisionFunction of the cerebellumcoordination of movementFunction of medulla oblongatasensory and motor nerve areaChemoreception involves which two senses?Smell and tastePhyscial features involved in taste-taste buds (not only in mouth) -barbels -gill rakers and archesMechanoreception senses _______ and _________.sounds and vibrations2 major parts involved in mechanoreception1. inner ear 2. neuromast/lateral linePars Superior carries out which functions?Equilibrium system and gravity detectorPars Inferior carries out which function?Sound detectionAre otoliths a part of the Pars Superior or Pars Inferior?Pars InferiorWhat is the term for the connection between the swim bladder and the inner ear?Weberian apparatusWhat are the mechanoreceptors called on the lateral line?NeuromastsWhat do neuromasts detect?pressure and vibrations in the waterWhat are the two types of electroreceptors?Ampullary and tuberousPores filled with conductive gel that respond to low-frequency electrical fieldsAmpullary receptorsElectroreceptors that have no opening to the surface, but detect higher frequency electric fieldsTuberous receptorsTrue or false: Teleosts that have electric organs are found in both fresh and salt waterFalse: fresh water onlyDescribe the relationship between elephant nose fish and electroreceptors-can detect weak electrical fields to find food and navigate murky watersElectric eels can generate pulses of electricity of ______ volts.400True or false: fish don't have binocular visionFalse: they do have binocular visionWhich 4 bones make up the operculum?-opercular -subopercular -preopercular -interopercularWhich color muscle is being described: fast twitch, anaerobic, converts glycogen to lactic acidwhite muscleHow do rete mirabile serve a purpose in maintaining higher body temperatures?these capillaries collects heat generated from muscles. This heat travels through the bloodList the four main methods of buoyancy1. low density compounds in body 2. lift provided by angled fins 3. reduced skeletal and muscular tissues 4. swim bladderWhat is the function of the suspensorium in bony fishes?suspends the jaws from the neurocraniumDescribe the mouth of a fish who is an obligate mouth breatherThe buccal cavity is high vascularized They must go to the surface frequentlyWhat are two examples of bottom hiders?Flounder Skates Rays DarterWhich muscle type has abundant myoglobin?Red muscleWhat is the name of the arch containing the palatoquadrate (upper jaw) and Meckel's cartilage (lower jaw)?Mandibular arch