59 terms

US History test ch13 reviw


Terms in this set (...)

What were the characteristics of the Plains Indians?
-The Plains Indians rarely came in contact with the European-American
-The Osage and Iowa hunted and planted in the Great Plains (grasslands extending through the west central part of the US) for over a hundred years
-Spain introduced the horse in 1598, allowing the Native Americans faster and longer hunting trips
-The Sioux and Cheyenne tribes hunted buffalo, the horse provided speed and, mobility, while buffalo provided basic needs
-Small extended families were the norm
-They were a hunter gatherer community
-The tribes were very spiritual and the land was communal
-A Nomadic Lifestyle, nearly completely dependent on the Buffalo.
How did the culture of white settlers differ from that of the Plains Indians?
-White settlers came as farmers, miners, and businessmen.
-They believed that the Native Americans had forfeited their right to the land by not "settling" on it, therefore the land was open to white settlement causing thousands to claim land
Why did settlers continue to push westward?
-Discovery of Gold in the Black Hills of Colorado
-Discovery of Silver in Minnesota brought tens of thousands looking to "strike it rich".
How did the government attempt to deal with the growing conflict between Native Americans and white settlers?
-The government restricted the reservation lands by setting boundaries for each tribe
-The Native Americans ignored these boundaries, which led to violent confrontations with white settlers.
Why did the Black Hills become a contested territory between Native Americans and whites?
-Gold had been discovered in sacred Native lands, a confrontation was inevitable.
What were the consequences of the defeat of General Custer's forces?
-Custers Seventh Calvary died
-An escalation (increase) in the U.S. Military presence on the Great Plains and the violent destruction of Native American resistance to the westward expansion of the United States.
What was the Dawes Act and what goal did it seek to achieve?
-The Dawes Act of 1887 broke up the Reservation System, Gave parts of reservations to individual Native Americans, Abolished the Tribal System
-Aimed to "Americanize" the Natives.
Why was the destruction of the Buffalo so detrimental to the Native American way of life?
The Plains Indian depended on it, the destruction of the Buffalo meant the destruction of their way of life (which the government knew when they authorized hunters to wipe out the Buffalo population to near extinction).
What were the causes and consequences of the Battle of Wounded Knee?
-The resumption of banned the Ghost Dance led to a raid by the U.S. Military.
-The ensuing conflict resulted in the deaths of many elderly, women, and children.
-This confrontation ended the Indian Wars on the Great Plains.
What influence did Spanish Ranchers have on the American Cowboy?
-Spanish Ranchers taught the American settlers how to round up, rope, brand, and care for the animals.
-Also influenced their vocabulary, wardrobe, selection of food, and their horses became the American Cowboys tamed prized mustangs
How did the growth of railroads and cities impact the cattle business?
-It increased demand for beef by providing a means to get the cattle to meat packing plants in Minnesota and Illinois.
Where did the Chisholm Trail run?
-It ran from San Antonio, Texas through Oklahoma to Abilene, Kansas.
How did the ordinary cowboy's life differ from the popular conception of it?
-Some Cowboys were African American and Mexican, they were not prone to fighting "villains", and they worked much harder than they played
-The popular conception of cowboys was that they'd ride in the open range, herding cattle and fighting off villains
What was the Long Drive?
-The overland transport of some 250-300 cattle with a wrangler and a cook from the ranch to the railroad, typically lasted around three months.
What factors helped bring an end to the open range?
-Shift to smaller herds by ranchers
-implementation of an enclosure movement spurned by the invention of barbed wire by Joseph Glidden
-the invention of the Refrigerated boxcar.
How did the Transcontinental Railroad open up the West for settlement?
-It provided a cheaper, faster means for people to reach the west
-Now people with less income seeking a new start on life could pick up and move west.
How did the Federal Government encourage western settlement?
-The Homestead Act of 1862 offered 150 acres of land free to any citizen, or intended citizen, who would live on the land and develop it.
What steps did the government take to preserve the nation's dwindling open land space?
-The government created Yellowstone National Park and forced the Railroad Companies to give up their claims to massive pieces of land in the Great Plains.
What forms of shelter did the Plains settlers develop?
-Sod Houses and Dugouts (no trees, made log cabins impossible)
What technology did settlers rely on to help them tame the prairie?
-John Deere's Steel Plow
-Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper
-The spring-toothed harrow, grain drill, barbed wire, and the corn binder were others.
What hardships did farmers face in the late 1800's?
-Rising overhead costs (cost of machinery, cost of freight rates from Railroads, etc.),
-Decreasing prices resulting from overproduction
-Increased debt and foreclosures
What economic problems did many farmers face during the late 1800's?
-Banks were foreclosing on an increasing number of farm mortgages because the farmer was making enough profit to pay his loans.
-The Railroads were abusing farmers by charging excessive freight rates knowing the farmer had nowhere else to go.
Why did farmers favor "cheap money"?
-A devalued money supply would increase prices of farm goods and provide the farmer with more money to pay back loans.
How did farmers try to address their problems and grievances?
-By forming political organizations such as the Grange Movement that would pass laws at the local and state levels regulating the Railroads (The Granger Laws)
What reforms did the Populist Party promote?
-Increasing the money supply (printing paper money and free and unlimited coining of silver)
-Direct Election of United States Senators and a Secret ballot election
-A Graduated Income Tax and a Federal Loan Program
-****Eight hour workday
-Restrictions on immigration
What were the causes and consequences of the Panic of 1893?
-Railroads went bankrupt
-Government's gold supply ran thin purchasing silver
-People began trading paper money for gold
-The stock market crashed
-1/5th of the workforce was unemployed
Why did the Populist Movement collapse?
-Economic concerns trumped concerns about reform, However the Populist movement showed that the downtrodden could organize and have a political impact, Populism also developed several new political ideas that would become law during the Progressive Movement of the early 1900's.
Great Plianes
Vast grassland extending through the west central portion of the US
Chisholm Trail
Major cattle route from San Antonio, TX through Oklahoma to Kansas
Ghost Dance
Native American ritual that was supposed to restore their way of life
Battle (Massacre) of Wounded Knee
Resulted when the US Army fired cannons on 340 starving freezing Sioux; within minutes 300 Sioux were dead
Sand Creek Massacre
Resulted when the Cheyenne and Arapaho were attacked without warning by the US Army; over 150 were killed mostly women and children
George A. Custer
Had bad judgment in attacking Native American warriors at the Little Bighorn River which resulted in his death and his troops death
Dawes Act
Meant to"Americanize" Native Americans by encouraging them the desire to own property and to farm reservation land distributed to Native American families
Sitting Bull
Leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux and never signed the Treaty of 1868 and helped the defeat of the US Army At the Little Bighorn, toured in Buaffalo Bills Wild West Show for a while, encouraged the Ghost Dance movement and was eventually killed during his attempt by reservation police to arrest him
Settler who farmed land given by the federal government
Home made of prairie turf
Morrill Act
Gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
Bonanza Farm
Massive single crop farm owned by railroad companies and private investors
Oliver Hudson Kelley
Organized the Grange
William McKinley
Winner of the 1896 presidential election
Republican Party
Supported the gold standard
The government began taking these out of circulation after the Civil War
Populist Party
Political Party that turned the American two party system into a three party system
A monetary system in which then government would give people silver or gold in exchange for paper currency
William Jennings Bryan
Nominated by two parties as their candidate for the 1896 presidential election
"Cross of Gold" Speech
Helped convince an undecided Democratic Convention to nominate William Jennings Bryan for president
Political Party that proposed an increase in the money supply(gold standard), a graduated income tax and a federal loan program, eight hour work day, and to appeal to urban workers
Republican Party
Members of this party were mainly business owners and bankers from industrialized areas
An organization started out as a social outlet and educational forum for isolated farm families, soon becoming a political voice for farmers
-Farmer cooperatives were formed allowing farmers to buy in large quantities the products they needed
-Created by Oliver Hudson Kelley
Anaconda Copper Company
Eastern mining company that transported things that miners found
Battle of Little Bighorn
Battle where Custer was killed along with his 200 some men and it was the last major Native American against the US Army
Native American tribe that relied on buffalo, hunter gatherer community in the Great Plains
-After a conflict with 88American Soldiers killed they agreed to be moved to a reservation in the Black Hills of South Dakota but left when miners were searching for gold
-leader is Sitting Bull
Gold Standard
Every dollar had to be backed by a similar amount of gold held by the federal government
-meant to limit the amount of money in circulation to ensure that inflation would not happen
Turner thesis
States that Americans were forced to adapt and innovate and they moved westward
Turner thesis
States that Americans were forced to adapt and innovate and they moved westward
Anaconda Copper Company
Eastern mining company that transported things that miners found
Battle of Little Bighorn
Battle where Custer was killed along with his 200 some men and it was the last major Native American against the US Army
Anaconda Copper Company
Eastern mining company that transported things that miners found