APUSH Chapter 9
American Pageant Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution
Terms in this set (62)
to make equal, as in status or condition.
Society of the Cincinnati
A secret society formed by officers of the Continental Army. The group was named for George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington himself had no involvement in the society.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Legislation passed by an alliance of Jefferson and the Baptists that disestablished the Anglican church
Wife of John Adams. During the war she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
John Singleton Copley
American painter who did portraits of Paul Revere and John Hancock before fleeing to England to avoid the American Revolution; loyalist
What social changes resulted from the American Revolution?
Women's' roles changed during the war because they had more responsibility and opportunity, weakening of aristocratic influence, more ideas challenging the ideas of slavery, "mr" and "mrs", separation of church and state.
Each of the 50 states has their own Constitution that sets forth the principles and framework for their government. Usually more detailed than the national Constitution
Laws that protected people from overtaxation.
What was the importance of the state constitutions?
The constitution of an individual state outlines how the government of that state will work, including the division of powers between the executive, the state legislature, and the state courts. It also may address the rights of individual state citizens. Most of them look and read pretty much alike and only lawyers pay attention to them. In the U.S. Constitution, not the 50 state constitutions.
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Empress of China
Merchant ship that left NY and went to China; carried ginseng (Chinese doctors used); introduced trade with the East Asian markets
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
What were the positive and negative effects of the war on America?
The positive effects of the Revolutionary War were the U.S. gained its independence, Great Britain lost it's standing as an undefeated superpower. The negative effect of the war were that France collapsed and entered a violent era known as the French Revolution because of severe debt. 9 out 10 Americans were farmers and they had no army and no navy.
Jefferson used Natural Rights in the declaration of Independence and he gave his appeal universality by invoking "natural rights" not just British rights.Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
Why was the end of the war difficult on the national government?
Unagreed to taxes. Forbid American colonists to travel west
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
What forces served to unify the separate states during the war?
What weaknesses plagued the Articles of Confederation? What was good about it?
The major weakness was not enough of a federal structure; a Federalist perspective resolved that weakness. Before 1787, states made their own rules even about currency and migration! It was unworkable in the long term.
Territories acquired by the federal government from the states, encompassing land northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. The well-organized management and sale of the land in the territories under the land ordinances of 1785 and 1787 established a precedent for handling future land acquisitions.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
Explain the importance of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance?
NW Ordinances 1784, 1785 & 1787 were enacted by Congress to establish orderly & equitable procedures for settlement & political incorporation of the Northwest Territory lying W of PA, north of the OH River, E of the MS River & S of the Great Lakes.
A group of Native American farmers located on the lower Mississippi River; wiped out by the French; their ruler, the Great Sun, lived on a ceremonial mound in their capital; stratified society with a small nobility; engaged in public torture & human sacrifice
Dey of Algiers
North African leader who took advantage of the weakness of the Articles of Confederation to attack American shipping.
Using examples, explain the title of this section.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
To be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it. This is an example of Mobocracy.
Were the United States of America in danger of falling apart under the Articles of Confederation? Explain.
Yes, in fact they were. The Articles were loose and had no power to enforce its paper documents. Americans viewed anyone with too much power as a threat to their freedom and therefor refused to come under any rule. This sad state of matters brought much discord to the states which were considered sovereign. The nation was in debt and it had enemies on all sides. It had no way to repay war debt as it had no way to collect the money from the states, which some refused to pay.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution. (p. 577)
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Federalist. Pushed for strong national government and banking system. Not well liked for debacle with the French.
"I know not what courses others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death" From a speech to the Virginia House of Delegates to convince them to support the fight for independence.
What kind of men gathered in Philadelphia for the "sole and express purpose of revising" the old government?
An elite group of men who gathered for that convention in Philadelphia in May, 1787, were men of great foresight and wisdom. Patriots in Philadelphia
How does George Washington's quote, "We have, probably, had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation." help to explain the purposes of our founding fathers.
George Washington's quote, "We have probably had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation" explains the purposes of the founding fathers in that men will not adopt and follow rules of society without the intervention of a coercive power, such as the government.
Virginia (large state) Plan
This was the first push towards a Constitution and said that representation in both houses of Congress would be based on population.
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
New Jersey (small state) Plan
A constitutional proposal for a strengthened Congress but one in which each state would have a single vote, thus granting a small state the same legislative power as a large state.
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
Describe the compromises that were achieved by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
Some delegates wanted 3 branches of government, and some wanted just the House & Senate. They compromised & agreed to have both.The major issue was the 3/5 compromising regarding voting qualifications for blacks, and the other was representation of states.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Separation of Power
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
How democratic was the Constitution as originally written?
Democrats follow a liberal philosophy;
A person who opposed the adoption of the United States Constitution.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Who were the antifederalists and why did they oppose the Constitution?
Madison, Hamilton, and Jay; The Federalists wanted adoption to be included in the constitution, but the Anti-Federalists did not.
Did most of the states approve of the Constitution? Why?
Yes all but two, Philadelphia and Pennsylvania..
Federalist. Pushed for strong national government and banking system. Not well liked for debacle with the French.
1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, negotiated with British for Washington
"Father of the Constitution"
A series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Explain some of the opposition to ratification of the Constitution.
The key opposition to ratifying the Constitution was that it did not prevent the government from denying certain basic religious and personal rights. This was addressed by promising that the first Ten Amendments would be added
What does your text mean when it says that the Constitution. "...elevated the ideas of the Revolution even while setting boundaries to them."?
The minority had triumphed again, and the transition had been peaceful. Only about 1/4 of the adult white males in the country had voted for the ratifying delegates. Conservationism was victorious, as the safeguards had been erected against mob-rule excesses. Revolutionaries against Britain had been upended by revolutionaries against the Articles. It was a type of counterrevolution.
Nationalist School of Historians
The writing of history based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials and composition of these materials into a narrative subject to scholarly methods of criticism
1780's when first tried gov't; second continental congress
A historian who believed that the ideology presented in the Constitution was a result of the economic needs of the land-owning Founding Fathers (rather than philosophical principles). His ideas fell out of favor in the 1950's, when other historians pointed out problems with his research.
Wrote 'Creation of the American Republic' (1969); saw the ratification controversy as a struggle to define the true essence of republicanism.
Why have historians disagreed about the reason why our Founding Fathers wrote the Constitution?
Because that was the most convenient day for a farmer to get into town to vote.