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cell division

the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

asexual reproduction

The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent

sexual reproduction

Offspring produced by sexual reproduction inherit some of their genetic information each parent


bundles of DNA. A single chromosome holds most of the cell's DNA


The complex of chromosome and protein. It super coils around the chromosome see page 280 for more information

cell cycle

During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for divisoin, and divides to form two daughter cells.


The inbetween period of growth inbetween cell divisions. This period is divided into G1, S, and G2 see page


The first stage of cell division when the nucleus divides


The second stage of cell division, the division of the cytoplasm


The first phase of mitosis is usually the longest and may take up to half of the time required to complete mitosis page 282 During this phase, the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, a spindle starts to form.


the duplicate strands of the DNA molecule can be seen to be attached at their length at this area, called the centromere


the name for each DNA strand in the duplicated chromosome


a tiny paired structure from which the spindle fibers extend. Plant cells lack centrioles, and organize spindles directly from their centrosome regions. The centrioles duplicate during interphase, start to move toward opposite ends, or poles of the cell.


The second phase of mitosis. It is the shortest generally. During metaphase, the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.


The third phase of mitosis. Sister chromatids suddenly separate and begin to move apart. Once anaphase begins, each sister chromatid is now considered an individual chromosome. During anaphase the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.


Follows anaphase. It is the 4th phase of mitosis. During telophase, the chromosomes, which were distant and condensed,begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.


a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth. Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cell. As a result the cells divide uncontrollably


Cancer cells form a mass of cells called a tumor


a developmental stage from which adult the organism is gradually produced

stem cell

an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)


hollow ball of cells


Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell


A stem cell that does not have a lot of diversity but can make themselves or become more specialized.


process in which cells become specialized in structure and function


a protein that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

growth factor

make up an important group of external regulatory proteins. Growth factors stimulate growth and division of cells. These proteins are especially important during embryonic development and wound healing


a process of programmed cell death. Once apoptosis is triggered, a cell undergoes a series of controlled steps leading to its self-destruction

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