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27 terms

ch 10 Bio Flashcards

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cell division
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent
sexual reproduction
Offspring produced by sexual reproduction inherit some of their genetic information each parent
chromosome
bundles of DNA. A single chromosome holds most of the cell's DNA
chromatin
The complex of chromosome and protein. It super coils around the chromosome see page 280 for more information
cell cycle
During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for divisoin, and divides to form two daughter cells.
interphase
The inbetween period of growth inbetween cell divisions. This period is divided into G1, S, and G2 see page
mitosis
The first stage of cell division when the nucleus divides
cytokinesis
The second stage of cell division, the division of the cytoplasm
prophase
The first phase of mitosis is usually the longest and may take up to half of the time required to complete mitosis page 282 During this phase, the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, a spindle starts to form.
centromere
the duplicate strands of the DNA molecule can be seen to be attached at their length at this area, called the centromere
chromatid
the name for each DNA strand in the duplicated chromosome
centriole
a tiny paired structure from which the spindle fibers extend. Plant cells lack centrioles, and organize spindles directly from their centrosome regions. The centrioles duplicate during interphase, start to move toward opposite ends, or poles of the cell.
metaphase
The second phase of mitosis. It is the shortest generally. During metaphase, the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
anaphase
The third phase of mitosis. Sister chromatids suddenly separate and begin to move apart. Once anaphase begins, each sister chromatid is now considered an individual chromosome. During anaphase the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
telophase
Follows anaphase. It is the 4th phase of mitosis. During telophase, the chromosomes, which were distant and condensed,begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
cancer
a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth. Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cell. As a result the cells divide uncontrollably
tumor
Cancer cells form a mass of cells called a tumor
embryo
a developmental stage from which adult the organism is gradually produced
stem cell
an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)
blastocyst
hollow ball of cells
totipotent
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell
multipotent
A stem cell that does not have a lot of diversity but can make themselves or become more specialized.
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
cyclin
a protein that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
growth factor
make up an important group of external regulatory proteins. Growth factors stimulate growth and division of cells. These proteins are especially important during embryonic development and wound healing
apoptosis
a process of programmed cell death. Once apoptosis is triggered, a cell undergoes a series of controlled steps leading to its self-destruction