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the mental space, what goes on in the athlete's brain; how well an athlete can manage their gifts
sports psychology look a lot at ___________
True or False: Sports Psychology is clinical
True or False: You can be a great athlete, but if you cannot manage your gifts or the mental side, it is of no use
Roger Fetter example
Started jr tennis at 8-9 yrs; threw racquet during competition; father took away racquets for 6 mo; now can manage emotions and respect game
True or False: Sports psychology creates talent
False; it just releases it
One example of how sports save lives
Washington Tennis Programs
What is the longest running television program?
Monday Night Football
True or False: Youth sports facilities around US rural areas revitalize cities
What was the importance of The Games Do Count book written by Brian Killsmeade?
Explained how sports influence lives; explained 911 where bystanders were given confidence by sport to overtake cockpit and redirect plane into mountains instead of cockpit
Which book explained how sports influence lives?
The Games Do Count; Brian Killsmeade
What are some things that sport teaches you?
hard work ethic, concentration, humility; how to believe in yourself; accepting failure; teamwork; character; play by rules
what you do when no one is watching
What is one of the biggest problems in athletes that can be helped by sport psychology?
What do sports psychologists do?
Help athletes set goals and concentrate their efforts; teach techniques for focusing
Who needs a sport psychologist?
having great practices but not great games; lacking confidence or coping skills; processing injuries & not playing
What are the 3 main ways that sports psychologists earn a living?
Research, teaching, and consulting
What line of study is professor involved in?
What motivates children to participate in youth sports
What are some types of research sports psychologists are involved in?
how imagery influences proficiency (golf putting); exercise psychology & running - endorphins & calming effect; building self-confidence; combat soldiers; robotics; exercise & aging
What has research found about combat soldiers & performance?
measured brainwaves; have the same abilities as elite athlete's in the way they manage stress. look at ways to improve mental state in stressful situations
What are some examples of those that can benefit from sports psych consulting?
athletes, teams, olympics, military, etc
True or False: Sports Psych is a very broad field and can be applied almost everywhere?
What areas is clinical sports psychology used for?
depression; obsession with training; suicidal tendencies; emotional disorders; eating disorders; substance abuse
Educational sports psychologists
human movement & brain; teach, advise; "mental coaches"
When did sports psychology begin?
1929 with coach Newt Rockney at Notre Dame - pep talks
Father of sports psychology
Prof. Coleman Griffith, University of Illinois; also worked with Chicago Cubs
What was the first college with sports psych?
University of Illinois
What caused a decline in sports psychology in 1930s?
Great Depression & WW I & II - sports psych not deemed academically necessary; not much $$ for college; draft for war
What happened in 1960 to re-energize sports psych?
International Conference of Sports Psych - Rome
International Conference of Sports Psychology - Rome (1960)
re-energized the sports psych field; US scientists attended & later brought back to DC
When was the re-birth of sports psych?
What topics were of interest during the rebirth of sports psych?
personality traits; imagery; thoughts; confidence
Current emphasis in sports psych focuses on:
brain imagery; Alzheimer's; exercise importance; diet
4 dimension of elite athletes
fitness, skill, physical endowments, mental
training throughout year; maintain & develop fitness levels
co-ordination, reaction time, kinesthetic awareness, speed, flexibility, sport intelligence
The perception of body position and movement in space; right place, right time
innate ability; way of thinking
body type; center of gravity; visual/perception (depth, near to far)
low center of gravity better for which sports?
gymnastics, skiing, etc
high center of gravity better for which sports?
2 components to mental dimension
needs and personality
needs of elite athlete
achievements & goals; control & power; aggression
personality of elite athlete
emotional stability; confidence; extrovert vs introvert; consistency; desire to win
Olympic diver; parents gave him up for adoption; had dyslexia, stuttering; coach took under wing; desire to win more overwhelming than personality issues - lead to success
True or False: you can be in the best shape possible with the best skillset, but if you don't have the mental or psychological side, cannot be successful or manage gifts
4 common areas in psychology to increase performance
motivation; concentration; mental imagery; stress control
Motivation and increasing performance
proper goals that focus on what you can control; critical for long hours of training; innate satisfaction needed to avoid burnout
Concentration and increasing performance
no internal monologue; practice helps concentration during competition - muscle memory
Mental imagery and increasing performance
imagining task stimulates same areas of brain as performing task (except motor cortex); mentally walking through pitfalls and opportunities; control mood & attitude
Stress control and increasing performance
getting rid of negative thoughts; coping strategies such as self talk
True or False: teams with both a mix of high and low achievement needs players perform better than those with all high achievement needs
3 different types of value orientations
task oriented; group/socially oriented; self-oriented
skilled at getting the goals of the group accomplished efficiently and well; perform best; need least support from fans
problems at high level; high caliber players not scoring; hurt more by fan/coach criticism
individual who focuses on his/her own good, often at expense of others
slow movement, static muscular tension; moving weight
Force developed rapidly or at high velocities; martial arts kicks
max force, minimum time
Strength measured by how much weight or resistance you can overcome regardless of your body size
Amount of force that one can exert in relation to one's body weight; absolute/body weight; more important
ability to react quickly; variety of movement with max efficiency
basis of efficient body movement; important for gymnastics
related to shape of joints; can be maximized by exercises
variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior
What affects individual differences?
environment; parents; gender; geographical location; age; family structure; SES; training; access to equipment/facilities; birthdates
Who is your first environment?
Is there still gender inequality in sport?
Yes; Title IX provided "equal access" regardless of gender in education/sport, but as a whole still geared towards males
depends on where you live and what sports are available; ex: Alaska - not many kids available; ex: rodeo not at UMD, but at Wyoming & Montana
Males reach peak performance at _______ yrs
Females reach peak performance at ______ yrs
True or False: Training and diet can add to performance longevity
How is family structure important to individual differences?
How many kids were born and birth order
Malcolm Gladwell - Outliers book
explains why some people succeed and lead impactful lives and others never reach potential; superstars don't arise out of nowhere
How does Malcolm Gladwell describe superstars?
"beneficiaries of hidden advantages & extraordinary opportunities & cultural legacies"; learn, work hard, and understand world differently
Most pro hockey players born in _____________
How many hours of practice to become an elite athlete?
Stimulus Response Theory
Gather info all day & store in brain; people react differently because of stored information; experience matters
Example of stimulus response theory in sport
Watching & studying video, play calling in football
Football player who had all the necessary physical qualities but individual differences influenced the mental & psychological side; altered course of life and eventually cut from NFL; Top athlete recruited over Brett Favre and had selection of D1 schools but got into drugs & alcohol. Parents used him as a "test 2 athlete"
Attitude toward physical activity inventory; Jerry Kenyon
Who developed ATPA
Attitude towards physical activity inventory
ATPA; describes peoples attitudes toward physical activity
True or False: With the ATPA, gender does not matter
False; differences between men & women
6 categories of the Attitude Towards Physical Activity Inventory (ATPA)
social; health & fitness; vertigo; aesthetic; catharsis; acetic
What is the reliability of the ATPA?
very high; 90%
What category of the ATPA was highest for high schoolers?
Social; but declined in college
According to the ATPA, what ingredients are needed for success in sports?
risk, danger, thrill
physical activity as stress relief
high pain tolerance; "no pain, no gain"
psychological construct that helps us understand behavior
______________ develops attitude
attitudes become our ____________
signature; who we are
True or False: You cannot have an attitude without past experiences
What do recruiters look for in attitude surveys?
How did University of Michigan compare to Northwestern on business school recruiting survey?
Michigan - "what's in it for me?"; Northwestern - pompous
Positive words lead to ___________ mental state = ___________ muscles = ___________ level of performance
calm mental state; relaxed muscles; higher level of performance
Negative words lead to _______ mental state = __________ muscles = ___________ level of performance
faster mental state; tightened muscles; lower level of performance
Who talked a lot about having a choice in our attitudes?
Charles Swindoll - "life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react.."
Changing your attitude takes time, about _______ days consistently
Successful athletes attitudes
pursue excellence, not perfection; positive attitude; maintain balance between their sport and lives; respect the sport, each other, themselves, coaches, etc
Which theory describes psychological growth and the process to reach psychological maturity?
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
hierarchy of needs theory
The theory that individuals have multiple needs that must be fulfilled in a specific hierarchical order to ensure the greatest level of satisfaction.
5 levels to Maslow's hierarchy of needs from bottom to top
Physiological; Safety & Security; Love & Affection (social); Self-Esteem; Self-Actualization
What is the foundation for hierarchy of needs?
need to satisfy hunger and thirst; air, water, food, shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction
safety & security needs
sense of order, structure, control, rules; personal security, employment, resources, health, property
love & affection (social) needs
friendship, intimacy, family, connection
love & affection needs are destroyed by ___________ and __________.
loneliness and ostracism
True or False: Self-Esteem is earned
Self-esteem is based on __________ and ___________
desire for achievement; independence
The Road Less Travelled
Scott Peck - realizing that life is filled with problems & roadblocks; overcoming challenges
The clearer the rules, the _______ your self esteem is
The limits that parents put on children will _________ self-esteem
The more freedom a child has growing up will ________ self-esteem
lower; need to know difference between right & wrong
What is at the peak of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
fulfillment of one's greatest human potential
Who are 2 examples of self-actualized people in sport?
Derek Jeter, Lebron James
Insight, joy, intense awareness of where they've been, where they are, and where they're going are qualities of __________________
How are Maslow's Hierarch of Needs and Freud's Psychodynamic Theory connected?
Freud discusses the ID, which is the pleasure seeking part of your psyche that you're born with and begin to develop sense of security - Maslow's second tier of hierarchy
3 psychological systems that make up Freud's Psychodynamic Theory
ID, Ego, Super Ego
seek pleasure & avoid pain
mediator between ID and Superego; realize there are some rules and just because you have the urge doesn't mean you have to
morality, conscience; begin to feel bad about lying or bad actions
ID begins at age _______
Ego begins at age _______
Superego begins at age ________
___________ serve as your first conscience before the superego
the __________ acts as a mediator between __________ and ________
Ego acts as mediator between ID and Superego
What is an example of sport that requires conscious effort utilizing Freud's 3 psychological systems?
Getting fouled and not retaliating.
True or False: Sport is a way to learn how to abide by the rules
How does Freud explain children's deviant behavior on the playground?
It's an opportunity to stop a child who has potential to be a bully; to teach how to successfully manage conflict
Freudian theory that unconscious forces determine behavior
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