Test 1 Gov

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Gateway to democracy
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Terms in this set (124)
The president isThe executive branchSystem that holds other branches accountablechecks and balancesWhat divided power vertically between the national government and state governmentFederalismPeople who disagree with same sex marriage and fear governmentconservativesPeople who are not conservative or liberal but in the middlemoderatesEconomic system were privately owned industry dominatesCapitalismFrenchman that wrote Democracy in AmericaTocquevilleJudging if American Democracy is working is based on two factorsResponsiveness and equalityClean air and water, lighthouses and highways are examples of what types of goodspublic goodsGetting political action in your favor is an example ofself-interestT/F when citizens get involved in the political process by joining volunteer organizations, they are engaging in a social contractFalse (civic interest)Common things millennials doVolunteer, not religious and dont identify with either major political partyCost of four-year public university trendincreased over timeIn the United states, education opportunity is linked toeconomic opportunityHow did the tea party align itselfWith republicansDocument that sets for basic rules and procedures about how a country will be governedConstitutionHow was the British political participation and representation different from those of the American ColonistsThe British had a more limited view of participation and representationWhy did the First Continental Congress meetTo send a list of grievances to King George III (1774)Purpose of Thomas Paine's Common SenseCalled for independence from BritainWhat was adopted by the continental congress in 1781The articles of ConfederationPlan that proposed a strong central government (tax imports and paper items)Virginia PlanT/F At the time of the constitutional convention, the constitution Gave congress the authority to veto state lawsFalseDescription of the electoral collegeThe president is elected by electors, selected by each state, representing the votes of their stateAmendment that granted American people the right to elect senators directlyseventeenthHow long are representatives terms2 yearsRequired for congress to override the presidents vetotwo-thirds majorityHow old does a president have to be35Important check on authority of legislature possessed by the presidentvetoLandmark Case that gave rise to judicial review which gives court the ability to strike down low passed by congressMarbury v. MadisonT/F The system of separation of powers divides power within the federal government among three branches of governmentTruePetition to determine if imprisonment is lawfulHabeas CorpusPeople who opposed the ratification of the ConstitutionAnti-federalistsWhich provision, specifying Congress' taxation powers, particularly alarmed AntifederalistsThe general welfare clauseWhy did antifederalists oppose the constitutionLacked bill of rightsCivil war amendments that freed slaves, due process of rights and voting rightsThirteenth, Fourteenth, and FifteenthGave woman the right to voteNineteenthWhen the majority in Congress is from a different party than the president, there is a(n)divided governmentStates differed as to whether women and free blacks could voteVoting rights in 1787T/F Today, political participation is much more widespread than in 1787TrueNo laws or control of behaviorAnarchistsWhich of these early amendments to the Constitution guarantees the government will provide just compensation for private property that it takesfifthIn Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court decided the Bill of Rights applied tothe national government onlyWhat test does the Supreme Court commonly use to determine whether a particular limitation of a constitutional right is acceptableThe compelling interest testDuring World War I, which law did Congress pass to make it a crime to obstruct military recruitingEspionage ActJoseph McCarthy, a U.S. Senator who was accusing American citizens, many from the film industry, of being "card-carrying"CommunistsPrisoners of war must be protected and treated in accordance with which international treatyGeneva ConventionsA word or phrase, such as a racial epithet, that attacks an individual as opposed to a group of people, is calledfighting wordsNow known as a sit-in, this scenario exemplifies what type of speechSymbolicThe publishing of false and damaging statements about a person is referred to aslibelFor published material to be considered obscene, it must pass which testMillerStates are generally free to pass laws that restrict religious practices if such lawshave a valid secular purposeWhich constitutional clause prevents Congress from recognizing one church as the nation's official churchEstablishment clauseThe Supreme Court test for determining whether laws violate the establishment clause is known as theLemon testT/F The Second Amendment declares, "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." The key phrase in this amendment that opponents of gun rights cite to support their argument is "well regulated militia."TrueWhich best describes the Supreme Court's 2008 majority opinion on whether the District of Columbia could restrict private possession of firearms?It reaffirmed an individual's right to keep and bear arms, indicating that the right could be regulated but not denied.What did Congress do in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook Elementary murders in Newtown, CTCongress has been inactive in restricting access to guns, but the states have varied in restricting and expanding gun rights.Generally, warrants that allow searches and seizures must be backed byprobable causeT/F If the police conduct a search that is later found to be in violation of the Fourth Amendment, the expectation of privacy test holds that the evidence cannot be used in trial.FalseAccording to which regulation, illegally seized evidence may NOT be used in trialExclusionary ruleWhich 1966 Supreme Court decision protected the rights of individuals in custody and mandated that police inform them of their rightsMiranda v. ArizonaWhich of the following is accurate regarding use of the death penalty as punishmentStates may impose the death penalty if they provide specific guidelines to jurors to considerWhich Supreme Court case established a right to privacyGriswold v. ConnecticutWhich Supreme Court case established a national right to abortionRoe v. WadeWhich Supreme Court case protected consensual homosexual relationshipsLawrence v. TexasRodney's lawyer believed that his trial court made a mistake about a question of law pertaining to his case. Because this sometimes happens, the American legal system allowsappealsWhich term refers to a judge's decision to adhere to the previous decisions of other judgesPrecedentThe Constitution establishes the judicial branch of government in which articleArticle IIIWhat process gives federal courts the power to declare actions of Congress, the president, or state officials unconstitutional and therefore voidJudicial reviewIn 2009, the Denver Police forced their way into the Martinez family home without a warrant. Four family members were arrested. The police officers mistakenly believed they were the drug dealers who used to live at the residence and lied to cover up their mistake. The Martinez family filed a lawsuit against the Denver Police Department. What type of case does this representCivil suitTo a request a review of a case by the U.S. Supreme Court, what must be filedWrit of certiorariWhich term describes individuals or interest groups who have an interest in a lawsuit but are not themselves direct parties to the suitAmicus curiaeA specially empaneled group that decides whether the government has enough evidence to charge a suspect with a crime is called whatVoir direIn 2016, two California men were charged with involuntary manslaughter after a fire at their dilapidated warehouse killed 36 people. In court, the defendants asked for prison sentences of six and nine years. The judge turned down the defendants, claiming they did not accept "full responsibility and remorse" for the fire. What arrangement are the California defendants (and their attorneys) attemptingPlea bargainWhen Supreme Court justices disagree with a result reached by the majority, what can they write to explain why they believe the Court's decision was in errorDissenting opinionWhich rule is used to decide if the Supreme Court will grant a reviewRule of fourAn opinion that agrees with the majority opinion but has a separate rationale for doing so is called whatConcurringUnder what circumstances can Congress simply overturn a court's decisionIf the court's decision is based on the meaning of a statutejudicial restraint, activism, and ideologyThe vast majority of judges are restrained toward laws that they agree with ideologically but are willing to overturn laws that they are distant from ideologically.Who is responsible for confirming Supreme Court nomineesSenateThe Senate Judiciary Committee may ask whether the senators of the president's party of a nominee's home state approve of a nominee to the Supreme Court by sending them ablue slipWho was the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme CourtSandra Day O'ConnorWhat happens after the Senate Judiciary Committee approves a nomination for Supreme Court justiceThe Senate votes on itWhich Supreme Court justice's ethics were questioned following sexual harassment accusations during the nomination processClarence ThomasWho was the first African American Supreme Court justiceThurgood MarshallThe commerce clause is at the heart of which major Supreme Court caseGibbons v. OgdenWhich Supreme Court case ruled that black Americans could not be citizensDred Scott v. SandfordWhich Supreme Court case argued that Congress could not use the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause to give them authority over individuals, only statesUnited States v. CruikshankAfter the Court struck down several pieces of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal legislation, how did he strike backHe proposed a Court-packing plan that would have allowed him to appoint a new justice for every justice over age 70 who failed to resignWhose Court is friendlier toward businesses than any Court preceding it, for example, declaring corporations have the same First Amendment speech rights as citizensRobertsWhat privileges are centered around the concept of equal treatment that government is obliged to protect based on the expectation of equality under the law, the most important of which is the right to voteCivil rightsWhen the government treats people equally but permits individuals or businesses to discriminate, it is allowingprivate discriminationWhich Amendment ended slavery in the United StatesThirteenthIf an elite law school like Tulane University graduates relatively few Latinos in comparison to its white students, there is likely a problem ofequality of outcomeWhich Supreme Court case held that African Americans could not sue in federal court because they were not American citizensDred Scott v. SandfordImmediately after the Civil War, freed slaves struggled to blend into society. This era was known asReconstructionWhich terrorist group was formed in 1866 to restore white supremacy in the U.S.Ku Klux Klan (KKK)Which case established the separate-but-equal doctrinePlessy v. FergusonWhich states took the lead in granting women the right to vote prior to the passage of the Nineteenth AmendmentWestern statesWhen she was born, a female baby was covered by her father's identity. When she married, she was covered by her husband's, rendering her person legally nonexistent. She could not make contracts, work in public life, or own anything. Although coverture laws like these are hundreds of years old, as late as 1972, eleven U.S. states continued to enforce them. Today, coverture laws are consideredgender discriminationT/F In the 1950s and 1960s, the Supreme Court actively applied the equal protection clause in order to fight public discriminationTrueWhat did the Supreme Court decide in the Civil Rights Cases (1883)Congress did not have the authority to ban private discriminationIn 1948, the Supreme Court ruled that private discrimination can be prohibited if it involves significantstate actionWhich standard of review does the Supreme Court use for discrimination cases based on race or ethnicityStrict scrutinyThe three biggest blocks to equality for African Americans post-World War II was state-sponsored segregation of public facilities, prohibitions on the right to vote, andthe right of private businesses to not serve people based on raceWhich Supreme Court case led to the end of the separate-but-equal doctrineBrown v. Board of EducationOn June 11, 1963, Governor George Wallace, a big supporter of segregation, physically blocked two black undergraduate students from registering for classes. The governor finally acquiesced when President Kennedy deployed the National Guard to enforce the integration ofUniversity of AlabamaWho refused to give up his or her seat to a white person on an Alabama bus and was subsequently arrested, leading to a Supreme Court decision that Montgomery's segregated bus system was unconstitutionalRosa ParksWhich Supreme Court case struck down a law prohibiting miscegenation, or interracial marriageLoving v. VirginiaWhich piece of legislation first limited, then was later amended to ban literacy tests for votingVoting Rights ActT/F The Stonewall riots are an event associated with the Women's Rights movementFalseWhich U.S. president signed the "don't ask, don't tell" legislationBill ClintonA McDonald's in Chicago is closing to the public for a week because its owner is adding wheelchair ramps to each of its three entrances. Which law is this business followingAmericans with Disabilities ActWhen police use race as a factor to determine who to investigate for a particular crime, it is calledprofilingThe Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges thatsame-sex marriage bans violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.