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Unit 7: 19th Century Political Developments

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Napoleon III
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believed governance should be via authoritarian leader representing the people (strong ruler needed to fight socialism), was a responsive ruler. Louis Napoleon (president via popular vote) declared himself hereditary empire. Reforms: economic progress (banks, railroads, rebuilt Paris), better housing/rights for unions to gain support of urban workers). Public backslash from Catholics and nationalists for problems in Italy and Prussia led him to liberalize empire (increase powers of Assembly and liberal opposition, constitution combining parliamentary regime and hereditary emperor)
Italy existed as competing city-states in the COV. 1815-1848: goal of unified Italy emerged, 3 separate paths: 1) Mazzini was a patriot for universal male suffrage under a centralized democracy. 2) federation under the pope. 3) Victor Emmanuel (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) adopted liberal constitution (civil liberties, parliament, secular). Seen as ideal way to achieve unification (not as radical as Mazzini).
statesman for Sardinia, aimed to expand Sardinia through north/central Italy. Embraced economy of rising middle class (built highways/railroads), gave civil liberties to gain supporters. Had secret alliance with Napoleon III to attack Austria (goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia and then had Napoleon defeat them). Napoleon took back promise and didn't give them territory because of public scrutiny for defying the church. Used Garibaldi to unify Italy.
desired power but was flexible and pragmatic, collected military taxes without parliamentary approval, believed conservatives should make peace with liberals and nationalists (unity under conservatism as opposed to battle for liberal reform). Constitution for Northern German Confederation: states had local governments with King/Chancellor with ultimate powers, federal gov't controls army/foreign affairs, two house legislature (one was elected through universal male suffrage: Reichstag). Gained support of the liberals through successes. Adopted high tariffs in response to worldwide financial crash, outlawed socialist party, laws establishing pension/retirement benefits/sickess-accident insurance..