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Unit 7: 19th Century Political Developments
Terms in this set (30)
believed governance should be via authoritarian leader representing the people (strong ruler needed to fight socialism), was a responsive ruler. Louis Napoleon (president via popular vote) declared himself hereditary empire. Reforms: economic progress (banks, railroads, rebuilt Paris), better housing/rights for unions to gain support of urban workers). Public backslash from Catholics and nationalists for problems in Italy and Prussia led him to liberalize empire (increase powers of Assembly and liberal opposition, constitution combining parliamentary regime and hereditary emperor)
3 Methods of Unification in Italy
Italy existed as competing city-states in the COV. 1815-1848: goal of unified Italy emerged, 3 separate paths: 1) Mazzini was a patriot for universal male suffrage under a centralized democracy. 2) federation under the pope. 3) Victor Emmanuel (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) adopted liberal constitution (civil liberties, parliament, secular). Seen as ideal way to achieve unification (not as radical as Mazzini).
Pope Pius IX
papacy was opposed to national unification and spread of liberal ideals. The Pope denounced -isms and religious liberties
statesman for Sardinia, aimed to expand Sardinia through north/central Italy. Embraced economy of rising middle class (built highways/railroads), gave civil liberties to gain supporters. Had secret alliance with Napoleon III to attack Austria (goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia and then had Napoleon defeat them). Napoleon took back promise and didn't give them territory because of public scrutiny for defying the church. Used Garibaldi to unify Italy.
revolutionary nationalist and republican with Red Shirts (guerilla army) who took over Sicily. Garibaldi allied with Count Cavour, turning nationalism into conservatism, as Cavour wanted to prevent the further spread of Garibaldi's radical ideas.
William I of Prussia
wished to increase defense budget and taxes to reform the army, but parliament rejected the budget because they wanted to weaken the military power of the King. William I called on Otto von Bismarck to defy parliament.
Otto von Bismarck (the Iron Chancellor)
desired power but was flexible and pragmatic, collected military taxes without parliamentary approval, believed conservatives should make peace with liberals and nationalists (unity under conservatism as opposed to battle for liberal reform). Constitution for Northern German Confederation: states had local governments with King/Chancellor with ultimate powers, federal gov't controls army/foreign affairs, two house legislature (one was elected through universal male suffrage: Reichstag). Gained support of the liberals through successes. Adopted high tariffs in response to worldwide financial crash, outlawed socialist party, laws establishing pension/retirement benefits/sickess-accident insurance..
politics based on current circumstances and factors as opposed to moral, ethics, and ideologies. Was response of conservative governments to failed 1848 Revolutions.
Prussia defeated Austria decisively, Count Cavour gained Venetia via alliance with Bismarck. Generous peace terms for Austria (no reparations or territorial concessions). Austria agreed not to interfere in German affairs.
Bismarck realized patriotic war with France would create national sentiment and gain alliance of Southern German States. Prussia goaded France into attacking and defeated France decisively, harsh peace terms for France (huge fine, Alsace-Lorraine to Germany), creating French-German rivalry
dispute with France and GB over control of the areas left by the retreating Ottoman Empire (GB and France wanted to limit Russian expansion). Failure of Russian transportation network, ultimately leading to defeat, showed how Russia was behind industrialized nations.
reforms after military disaster. Freed the serfs (although had little improvement because system of collective responsibility prevented improvement of agricultural methods). Zemstvo (system of local gov't with elected assemblies). EconomicL subsidized private railroad companies (allowed export of grain), industry increased strength of military and helped spread Marxian though as factory working class began forming.
minister of Finance under Alexander III, believed industrial backwardness threatened Russia's power. Expanded railroads, established protective tariffs, encouraged foreigners to build factories in Russia (aided by loans from France).
Revolution of 1905
Russia lost to Japan (humiliating) leading to political unrest. (Push amongst middle class for liberal government, labor movement amongst factory workers, nationalism amongst minorities). Bloody Sunday: workers petitioned in St.Petersburg and were brutally killed, causing mass revolts. October Manifesto: granted full civil rights and elected Duma
parliaments established by the October Manifesto. Tsar still had absolute power (could veto or dissolved Duma). Electoral laws were rewritten to increase influence of propertied classes (tsar had loyal majority in Duma).
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic church, was minimally successful.
Third Republic of France
war with Prussia aggravated class conflicts: Third Republic (patriotic republicans). Managed to achieve stability because the defeat of Commune (socialist group) proved republic wasn't too radical). Passed laws legalizing trade union, free secular elementary education, expanded public schools
Jewish captain Dreyfus was wrongfully accused to treason, divided the country: army/anti-Semites/Catholics vs libertarians/radical republicans. Increased rivalry between church and republicans, prompting gov't to sever ties with the church: gov't didn't pay bishop/priest salaries and Catholic schools had to be financially independent.
Reforms in Great Britain
Benjamin Disraeli expanded suffrage to middle class and best-paid workers. Third Reform Bill of 1884 gave suffrage to most adult men. People's Budget: laws increasing social welfare services (increased taxes on the rich for health insurance, pension, unemployment benefits - inspired by David Lloyd George). Were initially blocked by the House of Lords who tried to reassert conservatism but King made aristocracy cave.
Austria weakened by defeat to Prussia, had to accept dual monarchy with Hungary: two states unified by monarchy, finance, and foreign affairs. Austria: weakened by conflict btwn ethnic minorities. Hungary: minorities resented Hungarian rule
Jews gradually gained rights across Europe (marriage, residence, property), gradual lessening of anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism surged after stock market crash of 1873 (resented success of Jews in industry), popular amongst conservatives and extreme nationalists. Zionism: creation of a Jewish state, repressed Jews emigrated, inspired by Zionism.
modified Marxian doctrine to be more moderate to attract more members. Focused more on improving working conditions, wages, and suffrage than revolution. Combined with other progressives for gradual reform. Increased standard of living made workers more moderate. Union membership increased.
became a moderate parliamentary monarchy: not radical or democratic, as small minority had right to vote and big division between classes. Cultural division between industrial/progressive north and agrarian/stagnant south.
tension between Aus and Prus after failed attempt to unify, Prussia created a system of trade within the states excluding Austria, increasing the rivalry. Austria attempted but failed to destroy the Zollverein.
go back on Alexander II's reforms and reassert autocratic rule (reactionary ruler). Had secret police and supported nationalism (expelled Jews)
Irish Home Rule
the potato famine fueled Irish revolutionaries, leading to abolished privileges of Anglican church and increased rights for Irish peasants. Irish Home Rule Bill: bill for self-government which was suspended until cessation of hostilities, Protestant Irish refused to be submerged in Irish Catholic majority.
The Great Migration
emigration rapidly increased prior to WWI because hunger and overpopulation meant young people saw increased opportunities abroad. Most who left were typically small peasant landowners or village craftsmen threatened by industrial growth. Migration slowed as rights improved. Swallows: Italians who harvested Italy part of the year and Argentina for the rest. Great White Walls: discriminatory laws to exclude Asians from migrating and competing with European migrants
as opposed to just economic relations, European powers used military forced for complete military takeover of colonies, increasing conflict between the European states. Displayed in the scramble for Africa. Bismarck initially against colonialism, but then for it to increase power of Germany.
Causes of New Imperialism
colonies viewed as very valuable: new market, raw materials, establish coaling stations and bases for the navy. Perception that colonies necessary to have a great nation (social darwinism: show superiority). White man's burden: Europeans had the duty of civilizing non-whites. Colonial gains were used as propaganda to advertise increased national prestige and divert popular attention from class struggle (imperialism is a national necessity to justify hold of power)
divided up Africa between the European powers
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