53 terms

COMD 2050 EXAM 1

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According to Darwin, early humans developed what to charm each other?
music
How long ago do anthropologists, linguists, language researchers speculate that some form of spoken language developed?
50,000-100,000 years ago
What theory states that if human infants grew up with no language, they'd spontaneously begin to use god-given language?
Divine Source
Who do Hindus believe was granted language?
Sarasvati
According to Psammetichus' experiment, what did the 2 year old utter?
bekos
Who said that kids spontaneously spoke Hebrew, so it must be the original language of the Garden of Eden?
King James IV of Scotland
What is the theory that primitive words are imitations of natural sounds?
natural sounds source
What are words that sounds similar to the noises they describe?
onomatopia
Why is the natural sound source theory problematic?
these words are rare, can't explain abstracts words or concepts
Why are natural cries of emotion problematic?
spoken language is produced on exhalation
What theory suggests that human language was developed in some kind of social context?
the social interaction source
Why is this problematic?
apes have grunts, but no capacity for speech
What theory examines biological basis of the formation and development human language?
physical adaptation source
What type of facial features with closely interlocking layers of muscles that increase flexibility and ROM of oral structures?
small
What is a very important facial feature for speech?
orbicularis oris
As humans develop, we lose space where but increase size of what?
oral cavity, brain
What is the voice box?
Larynx
What is the longer cavity above the larynx that acts as a resonator in speech production?
phayrnx
What is the difference between human and primate larynx?
humans have a lower larynx,w which creates a longer pharynx. greater chance of choking
What theory says that as human encountered physical changes, new abilities developed with existing features?
tool-making source
What is the specialized function in each of the 2 hemispheres?
lateralized brain
What theory states that human offspring are born with a special capacity for language, due to a "crucial mutation"?
genetic source
What are intentionally used to provide information?
communicative signals
what are behaviors that provide information unintentionally?
informative signals
We must use what to study human vs. animal language?
both
What is it called we humans use language to think and talk about anguage itself?
reflexivity
What is it when we can refer to past and future events?
displacement
What is it when there is no natural connection between a linguistic form and its meaning?
arbitrariness
What is the capacity to constantly create novel utterances?
productivity
What are signals, in the animal world, fixed as relating to a particular object/occasion?
fixed reference
What is it when language is passed on from one generation to the next?
cultural transmission
What is it when human language has 2 simultaneous levels of sounds production and meaning?
duality
Does communication always include language?
No
What was the chimp who was raised with Kellogg and their baby together?
Gua
did gua understand language?
yes
did gua produce speech?
no
Who raised vicki as their own child?
catherine and keith hayes
could vicki say words?
a few
why can nonhuman primates produce human sounds?
don't have the physical structure
Who was taught ASL by Gardner?
Wahshue
After age 3.5, how many words could Wahsue sign?
100+
Did Washue understand more words than she could produce?
yes
How many word phrases could she produce?
3-5
Could she have basic question and see convokes?
yes
What chimp used a set of plastic shapes representing words to create sentences?
Sarah
What were Sarah's signals?
arbitrary
What was sarah awarded with?
treats
Who created artificial language?
Lana
What was this language called?
yerkish
Out of Matata and Kanzi, who did better?
kanzi
by age 8, how old was kanzi on human years?
2.5
How was jim raised?
researhc animal
Human language is constantly what?
evolving