63 terms

comd 2050 exam 1

exam 1
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Terms in this set (...)

What are the four theories regarding human language?
divine source, natural sound source, physical adaption, and genetic source.
What is the divine source for the Hindu religion?
Sarasvati, the wife of brahma, is the creator of the universe
What is the divine source for the Egyptians?
2500 years ago, the pharoh, psamettichus, heard 2 newborn babies spontaneously utter "bekos" which is the phrygian word for bread.
What experiment did King James IV of Scotland conduct? WHat people did a similar experiment?
A language deprivation experiment where 2 children were forced to be raised by a mute. Hebrews did a similar experiment
What is the first theory of natural sound source? What is an example of this theory?
The idea that primitive words were imitations of natural sounds. Onomatopoeic words are examples of this theory, the problem with this though is that these words are rare and can't explain soundless, abstract concepts.
What is the second theory of natural sound source? What is the problem with it?
It is natural cries of emotions from pain, anger, joy, etc. Examples are ah, ooh, and wow. The problem with this is that spoken language is produced on exhalation and these words are not seen in everyday speech.
What is the 3rd theory of natural sound source? What is the problem with it?
the 3rd is the "yo-he-ho" theory. It says that the first words were grunts and groans made during coordinated physical labor. This suggests that human language was developed in some kind of social context. It is problematic because apes and other primates have grunts and calls, and are social; but they have not developed the capacity for speech.
What is the theory of the physical adaption source of human language? What question does it ask?
Physical adaption source is a more modern/scientific approach. It examines biological basis of the human formation and development of human language. It describes the physical characteristics that make language an efficient form of communication for humans. It asks how, rather than why.
Define glossogenetics. What are some relevant features for speech production? (7)
It is essentially the study of the evolutionary aspects of the formation of speech. Some relevant features for speech production are upright teeth, muscular structure of lips, small mouth, tongue, larynx (voice box), and pharynx, and lateralized brain.
What does the pharynx do for speech production?
It has a longer cavity above the larynx that acts as a resonator in speech production
What does the lateralized brain do for speech production?
the laterlized brain has specialized function in each of the two hemispheres. This is a possible evolutionary connection between the language-using and tool-using abilities of humans
What is the hypothesis for the genetic source of language?
the innateness hypothesis which states that human offspring are born with a special capacity for language
What is the difference between communicative and informative signals?
Communicative signals are intentionally used to provide information. Informative signals are behaviors that provide information unintentionally.
What are the 6 properties of human language?
displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural transmission, and duality.
What is displacement?
This means that we can refer to past and future events; we can refer to things not in our immediate environment.
What is arbitrariness? How does arbitrariness relate to animal language?
means that there is no "natural" connection between a linguistic form and its meaning. There seems to be a lear connection between animal signals and the message conveyed.
What is productivity? How is this different in the animal world?
Means the capacity to constantly create novel utterances, and there are an infinite number of possibilities. In the animal world, signals in their systems are fixed as relating to a particular object or occasion.
What is cultural transmission? How do animals differ?
means the process in which a language is passed in from one generation to the next. Animals are born with an instinctive set of signals.
What is duality? How do animals differ?
means human language has 2 simultaneous levels of sound production and meaning. Animals appear to have fixed communicative signals that cannot be broken down.
What was the Gua experiment?
Gua was raised with a human boy around the same age. Up until 2 years old, they were similar in every aspect except language where Gua could not achieve.
What is the Vicki experiment?
This chimp was able to produce a few words but not many.
What was the Washoe experiment?
A chimp that was taught American sign language. After 3.5 years, she was able to use signs for 100+ words, but she understood more words than she could produce. She was able to produce 2-3 words phrases like open food drink. She also created her own signs like bib and swan. She seemed capable of having basic question-answer conversations.
What was the Sarah experiment? How did she differ from the other experiments?
Sarah used a set of plastic shapes representing words to create sentences. The symbols that she used were arbitrary; she was rewarded with edible reinforcements. She could also understand complex structures like if and then. However, she differed from the other experiments; she was forced to stay in a cage unlike the other chimps.
Who were Sarah's parents and what did they do?
Ann and David Premack, they wrote "The Mind Of An Ape" which stated that " we now know that someone who comprehends speech must know language, even if he/she can't produce it."
What is the Lana Experiment?
The scientist created an artificial language called Yerkish. It was a set of symbols on a large keyboard and computer. Lana would press the symbols on the keyboard to produce language. It is similar to logographic codes/word-writing. She was the chimp that used the word "please." So she probably didn't learn language as well as the others, but she got a reaction which is what mattered.
What was the Nim Chimpsky experiment?
The chimp produced signs in response to the demands of people. The owners mistakenly interpreted this as conversation and the controversy began.
What were the differences between Washoe and Nim?
Washoe was in a domestic environment that allowed lots of opportunity for imaginative play while Nim was in a bare windowless cell that didn't [resent that opportunity. Washoe interacted with fluent signers who signed to each other, however, Nim was surrounded with research assistants that were not all familiar with ASL.
What was the Matata Experiment?
Matata was not a chimp, but instead a bonobo, which is a pygmy chimpanzee. She was being taught to use Yerkish but was not very sucessful. However, Matata adopted a baby that was always with her named Kanzi.
What was the Kanzi Experiment?
Kanzi was a baby raised by a pygmy chimapanzee. He spontaneously started using the symbol system with great ease and learned 250+ forms by the age of 8
What is inherent to humans in regards to language?
The ABILITY to process or produce language with exposure.
Were Washoe and Kanzi capable of taking part in interaction by using a symbol system chosen by humans and not chimpanzees?
yes
Did Washoe and Kanzi perform linguistically on a level comparable to a human child of almost the same age?
no
We do not have a completely objective and non-controversial definition of what counts as ______ when studying the nature of _____. Very few scientists are willing to say that the ___________ made by chimps that are similar to ________ are _______. Human language involves a complex ______ and _____ that is constantly _______.
We do not have a completely objective and non-controversial definition of what counts as "using language" when studying the nature of language. Very few scientists are willing to say that the language-like vocalizations made by chimps that are similar to children are language-use. Human language involves a complex set of sounds and structure that is constantly evolving.
define phonetics
phonetics is the study of the characteristic of speech sounds
Define articulatory phonetics
articulatory phonetics is how speech sounds are made (articulated). It is what the articulators like teeth, lips, and soft palate are doing in the mouth and elsewhere to create sound
define acoustic phonetics
acoustic phonetics is the physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air. It is how sounds are transmitted.
Define auditory phonetics
Auditory phonetics deals with the perception by the ears of speech sounds. It is how the brain perceives sounds.
What kind of phonetics are we focusing on in this class?
articulatory phonetics - how we manipulate our speech organs to produce sounds
There are 3 main factors of articulation, what are they?
voicing, place of articulation, and manner of articulation
What happens to your vocal folds for voiced and voiceless articulation?
for voiceless, your vocal folds remain apart but for voiced, they are closed
What is the position of the vocal cords for voiced? voiceless?
the vocal cords are together (tight) and vibrating. For voiceless, the vocal cords are open (relaxed) and not vibrating.
What is meant by the place of articulation?
means where the sound is made.
What does bilabial mean? What sounds are made with this?
Sounds made using upper and lower lip. P, B, M, and W.
What does labiodental mean? What sounds are made with this?
Sound formed with a constriction between the upper teeth and lower lip. /f/ and /v/
What does interdental mean? What sounds are formed with it?
formed by tongue tip touching behind the upper front teeth, but can also be produced with the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth. /th/ and /th/ voiced and voiceless
What does alveolar mean? What sounds does this make?
made at the alveolar ridge, the bony ridge behind your upper front teeth, the front part of your tongue touches the alveolar ridge. /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /n/ /l/ /r/
What does palatal mean? what sounds are made with this?
sounds produced with the tongue and hard palate. /sh/ /ch/ /dge/ /su/ /y/
What does velars mean? What sounds are made with this?
Made at the roof of mouth at the velum which is the soft palate; the back of your tongue touches the velum. /k/ /g/ /ng/
What does glottals mean? What sounds are made with this?
made at the glottis which is the space between the vocal folds. It is produced without active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth. /h/
define phonetics
study of sounds
define syntax
study of grammar
define phonology
study of sounds and strains
define semantics
study of meaning
define morphology
study of structures of words
What is the manner of articulation?
how a sound is made; obvious differences in the way that sounds at a given place of articulation are produced
What are the 5 manners of articulation?
stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals and approximates
What is a stop? what are the 6 stops?
stops are made by completely stopping the air flow at some place and then suddenly released through the mouth. (Please be today's dancing Kangaroo girl) /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/
What is a fricative? What are the 8 fricatives?
to produce, the air stream is almost blocked, but the opening at the place of articulation is very narrow. A lot of friction as the air goes through the opening which produces the noise associated with the sound. (feeling ery thin, the sultan, Zangar, showed pleasure) f, v, theta, ð, s, z, / ʃ/, /ʒ/
What are affricates? What sounds does it make?
These sounds you start with complete closure and slowly release it in a way that causes friction. It is a combination of a stop and a fricative. (cherry juice) / ʧ // ʤ /
What are nasals? what sounds does it make?
sounds made by air going through the nasal cavity, when the velum is lowered. m, n, ŋ
What are the 2 forms of approximates?
liquids and glides
What are the 2 sounds of liquids?
l and r
what are the 2 sounds of glides? What is special about these?
w and y /j/. These are the only 2 that have vowel sounds at the end of it. This is how it differs from liquids.