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Psychology Chapter 1
Terms in this set (76)
The science of behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it
Systematic and objective methodology
What is scientific study?
Behavior, Cognitive Processes, Physiological Processes
What are the three pieces of psychology?
Any action we can observe, measure, and record objectively
The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge (thinking)
Bodily activity that includes the functions and parts of a living organism
1879 in Wilhelm Wundt's research lab
Where and when was psychology born?
Who was the founder of psychology?
Which psychologist was about the "mind, consciousness, and mental processes," wrote the first book in psychology, and is known as the "father of psychology?"
Who was the first to teach a psych class in the U.S., introduced experimental psych to the U.S., and studied functionalism- (what is the purpose of consciousness)
G. Stanley Hall
Who was the 1st president of the APA, was credited with creating the first U.S. psych lab, and first brought Freud to America
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who taught the 1st psych class at a women's college, focused on research and established a psych lab for women, and was elected the 1st female president of the APA
His focus was on the unconscious rather than the conscious
How was Freud's view different from other psychologists?
Who focused on the unconscious and psychoanalysis, developed personality tests, and whose book; "Interpretation of Dreams," marked the beginning of psychoanalysis
They studied objective, measurable behavior and placed no focus on the conscious/unconscious
What is the belief system associated with behaviorists?
Who is known as the "father of behaviorism," redefined psych as the study of objective and measurable behavior, and believed that "if it can't be seen, it has no place in psychology"
Who introduced reinforcement and punishment, believed that everything we do and are is determined by our history of rewards and punishments, and is the most influential psychologist in the world
Who was the father of behaviorism?
Who was the most influential psychologist of the 20th century?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Who were the main founders of humanism?
Who is the founder of positive psychology?
Human beings are unique and
fundamentally different from other animals
What is the belief system associated with humanists?
A capacity to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Verbal and non-verbal
What are the two different types of subtests that make up the Wechsler intelligence tests?
Which type of test indicates acquired knowledge?
Which type of test predicts future performance?
What is the mean IQ?
What is the standard deviation on an IQ test?
Exceptional talents in one area and functioning poorly in others
What is Savant Syndrome?
Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Spacial, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalistic
What are Howard Gardner's eight systems of intelligence?
Analytical, Creative, Practical
What are Robert Sternberg's 3 parts of his Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
A nerve cell that receives and transmits info throughout the nervous system as an electrical impulse
Which part of a neuron receives messages from other cells
Cell Body (Soma)
Life support center that collects, integrates, and sends info
Transmits info from cell body to terminal
Insulates; speeds transmission
Filled with vesicles that release neurotransmitters
These cells assist neurons, build the Myelin sheath, supply nourishment and oxygen, etc.
An electrical impulse that sends neurotransmitter info from one neuron to another, or to muscles and glands
All or none response
The response that states either neurons "fire" or they don't and action potentials don't vary in intensity
In synaptic vesicles in the terminal of the sending neuron
Where are neurotransmitters stored?
Specific neurotransmitters bind to specialized receptors on the receiving dendrite
How do neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites? (lock and key)
Which NT was the first to be discovered and allows muscle action, learning, and memory
Which NT deals with movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Which NT deals with mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Which NT helps control alertness and arousal
Which NT is inhibtory and quiets brain activity
Which NT is excitatory and increases efficiency of learning and memory
Somatic and Autonomic
What are the two parts of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Which part of the nervous system regulates voluntary muscle action
Which part of the nervous system regulates involuntary muscle action
Central and Peripheral
What are the two parts of the nervous system
The body's "slow" chemical communications system that is made up of glands and overlaps with the NS
Sympathetic and Parasympatheitc
What are the two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
What is the master gland of the endocrine system
In the hindbrain; controls heartbeat and breathing
In the hindbrain; involves sleep, movement control, and emotional memory retrieval
In the hindbrain; a net-like web or network of neurons that regulates sleep, attention, and arousal. It filters incoming sensory info and relays it to other parts of the brain
In the hindbrain; The "little brain," helps us judge time, control emotional expression and distinguish sounds and textures; enables nonverbal learning and memory
Sits atop the hindbrain but part of the forebrain; is the gateway to other regions, all sensory messages except smell go through here on their way to the cortex, it is the crossover for sensations
In the forebrain; Manages hunger, thirst, sleep, and temperature; regulates sexual and aggressive impulses, houses biological clock, and controls endocrine system through pituitary gland
In the forebrain; Plays a role in aggression and fear, forms emotional memories
In the forebrain; "Save button" for memory of facts and personal events
Large wrinkly cover for other structures, two hemispheres with 20 billion neurons,
Outer layer of the cerebrum
The part of the cerebrum that holds the soma, dendrites, and glia cells
The part of the cerebrum that holds myelinated axons
Bundles ox axons connecting hemispheres
This lobe is the executive or "seat oh thought;" located at the front of the brain
This lobe is located in the middle of the brain
This lobe interprets sound messages received from the ears; located in the bottom of the brain
This lobe is located at the back of the brain
Which lobe is the auditory cortex located in?
Which lobe is the motor cortex located in?
Which lobe is the somatosensory cortex located in?
Which lobe is the visual cortex located in?
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