2 newborn babies only heard goats. The word they spoke was not Egyptian but supposedly the ancient Phrygian language word "bekos" that means bread. When the "kos" part of the word that was added to the Greek version of the story was removed, the word they spoke was "be" which sounds like a goat. Pssamatiches said Phrygian was language of gods because these babies that heard no other languaged had spoken the langugae given to all humans from the "divine source."
Natural Sound Source
Natural Sound Source AKA Bow-Wow Theory
Primitive words were imitations of natural sounds early humans heard. Ex: Onomatopeoas like cuckoo, splash, bang, boom, rattle, buzz, hiss OR Original sounds of language came from natural cries of emotion (pain, anger, joy) Ex: ouch, yuck, wow, ooh
Social Interaction Source
social interaction source AKA yo-he-ho theory
language began with natural sounds produced by a person or people involved in physical labor, particularly if the action needed to be coordinated like teams pulling a tree or rowing a big ship
physical action source
based on types of physical features that humans possess that other animals do not that could have been involved in early speech production
comm may have begun with hand gestures and developed into verbal language
genetic source AKA innateness hypothesis
human children are born with a special capacity for language, the capacity for developing language in human children is innate or born in them
when speaker intends to comm. something to listener
when speaker does not intend to comm. something to listener but does (I'm from the south from a southern accent)
what is considered when comparing human and animal comm?
intentional comm. (did they mean to comm. something?)
using language to think and talk about language itself "i wish he wouldn't use so many technical terms"
allows language users to talk about things not present in the immediate environment
when there is no natural connection between a linguistic form and its meaning (the word horse doesn't look or sound like a horse)
creating new expressions and novel utterances by manipulating linguistic resources to describe new objects and situations
the process by which a language is passed from one generation to the next
duality (double articulation)
human language is organized into 2 layers or levels simultaneously. Layer 1: diff arrangement of letters have diff sounds: "ta" has diff sound than "at". Layer 2: diff arrangements of letters represent diff things: "rat" is a diff thing than "tar"
ex of reflexivity
goose tells peanut to bark louder so he sounds meaner when strangers approach
ex of displacement
bee can comm. to his bros where the honey at, but only the most recent
are animal sounds arbitrary? (ex: meow, bark)
each signal in an animals comm system is fixed and relates to a particular object or location ex: when monkey sees snake it says 'chutter' when it sees eagle it says 'rraup'. when researchers threw a flying snake at the monkey it did not say 'chutt-rraup'. a human would say 'watch out for that flying snake'
is lang inhereted?
no, it is acquired in a culture around other speakers
animals are born with a set of specific signals they produce instinctively. children growing up without hearing a lang do not develop their own lang
duality (double articulation) layer 1
distinct sounds. diff arrangements of letters have diff sounds: 'ta' has diff sound than 'at'
duality (double articulation) layer 2
distinct meanings. diff arrangements of letters rep diff things: 'rat' is a diff thing than 'tar'
ex of duality
woof cant be broken down into w+oo+f to get new dog words
does goose actually understand the meaning of the word ball?
probably not. animals are trained to do a particular behavior in response to a particular sound we make. a horse doesnt learn to moo
if any animal could pick up human lang what animal would it be?
Gua 1930s chimp
raised son and chimp in a house togeth to see if chimp could pick up lang like the son. by age 2 when boy was talking, Gua could understand abt 100 words but couldnt say any of them
Vicki 1940s chimp
raised in a home like a human child. parents spent 5 years trying to get her to say words by holding her mouth in shapes needed to say them. could say 'mama' 'papa' and 'cup'.
Washoe female chimp
raised as a human child. tried to get her to learn a version of the American Sign Language (ASL). by the end of 3.5 years she could sign lang for over 100 words and could combine them to make short sentences like "gimme tickle" "more fruit" and "open food drink" (fridge). invented a sign for 'bib' and combined 'water bird' which showed she had potential for productivity. understood more signs than she used. could carry on convo in question answer form. Washoe indicated the ability for productivity in chimps.
which chimp indicated the ability for productivity in chimps?
Washoe and Koko
could use sign lang like Washoe to comm and carry on convos, indicating the ability for productivity in gorillas
raised in a cage in a lab and taught to use a set of plastic shapes to comm with humans. the shapes rep words that could be arranged in order to make sentences. she was systematically trained to associate the appropriate shapes to objects. ex: apple was a blue triangle. able to create simple sentences with shapes (mary give sarah chocolate). and even understand an if-then request (if sarah put red on green, mary give sarah chocolate
trained to use a Yerkish lang that consisted of a set of symbols on a large keyboard connected to a comp. ex: to get water Lana had to type 4 symbols that rep the words "please machine give water"
while she was trying to train a bonobo (a pygmy chimp) named matata, Kanzi learned the lang without being taught but by observing a kind of lang at a very early age. eventually developed a 250 symbol vocab and could understand spoken English at the level of a 2.5 year old human child. he was also using his own set of consistently distinct "gentle noises" as words to refer to things like bananas, grapes, and juice. used lang to watch his fave movies
HEBERT TERRANCE trained chimp to use sign lang. and argued that chimps are smarter at repeating signs they know their trainers want to see and their use of sign lang. is not like human's use of lang- to comm. said it was responses to stimuli, or simply animals performing the 'tricks' they had to preform to receive rewards. said actions were conditioned responses to cues trainers gave to perform a task for a treat. ex when dad tells goose to sit before he will throw the ball goose knows when dad says sit that the ball will get thrown for him if he puts his butt on the ground
distinguishing sounds in a language. shown with symbols like /t/
/t/ and [t]
/t/: abstract idea of the lette [t]: spoken versions of it
phonemes function constrastively: the contrast b/w the 2 phonemes /f/ and /v/ are the only way to tell the diff b/w fat and vat
if we substitute one sound for another and the word has a different meaning (sat, fat) then the two sounds are diff what
diff versions of that sound type regurarly produced in actual speech
phones are what?
a set of phones that are all versions of one phoneme
constraints on the permitted arrangements of sounds in a language (the lig tree ex)
basic elements of a syllable (one or more consonants)
consists of a nucleus and a coda
a syllable must contain what?
a vowel or vowel like sound, including dipthongs
what are the basic elements of a syllable?
the onset (one or more consonants) followed by the rhyme (or rime) which consists of a nucleus (vowel or vowels) and a coda (consonants)
new word in a language that hasnt been fully accepted yet
the study of the origin and history of a word
the invention of totez new words
new words based on the name of a person or place
taking over of new words from other languages
loan-translation or calque
special type of borrowing in which there is a direct translation of the elements of a word into a borrowing language
the process of combining words to create new words (bookcase, doorknob, fingerprint)
the combo of 2 seperate forms to produce a single new term usually accomplished by taking the beginning of one word and joining i to the end of the other word. (ex: smoke and fog for smog, brunch motel, Spanglish (mixed culture))
when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form (bra, joe, math)
created when a longer word is reduced to a single syllable and a -y or -ie is added to the end. Mainly used in Australian or British English. Ex: telly (tv), barbie (BBQ grill), bookie, hhankie
specialized type of reduction process in which a word of one type is reduced to form a word of another type (usually a verb). ex: tv-televise, donation-donate, enthusiasm-enthuse, babysitter-babysit, option-opt, worker-work editor edits sculptor sculpts peddler peddles
category change functional shift
conversion (category change) (functional shift)
change in the function of a word like when a noun comes to be used as a verb
new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words ex: CD, VCR, NASA
diff words formed in a language by adding small bits usually described as affixes to words
most common word creation process
added to the end of words (-less..worthless)
bits incorporated inside a word; (uneffinbelievable)
a special form of infixing in english, but better ex come from Kamhmu, and lang from south east asia
when new words are formed to be similar in some way to existing words (ex: yuppie-hippie with yippie)
vocal folds drawn together, air from lungs pushes them apart
vocal folds spread apart so air goes through unimpeded
place of articulation of a sound
the location within the mouth at which the constriction of air occurs to make the sound