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Contemporary Environmental Issues
Terms in this set (48)
What are the four historical revolutions?
What are some of the major consequences of population growth?
Describe leading strategies for slowing population growth
-raise average level of education
-increase money allotted to public health and family planning services
-education on methods of birth control
-politics and laws
What are the trends, spatial distributions, and leading indicators of modern population patterns?
-fertility transition brings about population stability
-requires changes in social and cultural factors that influence TFR
What are the characteristics of changes in social and cultural factors that influence TFR?
-reduced infant and childhood mortality rates
-reduced need for children as workers
higher status of women (educational opportunity, employment outside the home, property ownership)
-cheap and widespread access to contraceptives
-security in old age via social security programs or retirement savings
-stands for Millennium Development Goals: -goals were to be achieved by 2015.
-focuses on ending poverty
-stands for Sustainable Development Goals
-goals are to be achieved by 2030
-focuses on sustainability and social equality
Explain the main processes causing biodiversity decline
What are the 5 biochemical cycles discussed in lecture?
What are the 4 ecosystem services?
examples of a supporting ecosystem service
examples of a provisioning ecosystem service
-food and fiber
examples of a regulating ecosystem service
-climate and regulation
-pollination of crops
examples of a cultural ecosystem service
what are biodiversity hotspots?
they are biological environments
why are biodiversity hotspots important?
their biological environments are home to many endemic species
What are 3 locations of hotspots?
What are 3 components of variability?
What defines sustainability?
the ability to meet current human needs without compromising the needs of future generations
What is a systems approach to modeling the world?
-system: set of components interacting to function as a whole
example: nature-society & human-environment
What is the main difference between the ideas of preservation and conservation?
conservation denotes an effort to sustain a space or resource for perpetual use, while preservation denotes a fortress-like approach to nature, walling off human influence in order to maintain pristine "wilderness"
What is conservation?
the sustainable use and management of natural resources including wildlife, water, air, and earth deposits, both renewable and non renewable
what is preservation
it attempts to maintain in their present condition areas of the Earth that are so far untouched by humans
Describe some of the system impacts in the Aral Sea/Sahel disasters
-world's 4th largest inland water body
-irrigation: 5 to 7.9 million hectares (10% of 2007 size)
-destroyed marine ecosystems
-removed freshwater source for surrounding communities
How does the ecological footprint approach differ from IPAT in measuring human environmental impacts?
the difference is that IPAT takes into consideration population, affluence, and technology while ecological footprint is the amount of land needed to provide renewable and nonrenewable resources/
What is an HDC
Highly developed country
What is an LDC
less developed country
What are 3 characteristics of an HDC?
-low population growth, birth rates, infant mortality
-low fertility rate, near replacement level
What is a crude birth rate (CBR)
it measures the rate of births to population
what is a fertility rate
the rate of births to women who are in the reproductive age group
What are the 4 stages of the demographic transition model?
Characteristic of preindustrial stage
very high birth and death rate
characteristic of transitional stage
characteristic of industrial stage
characteristic of postindustrial stage
low/stable birth and death rate
How much of the world's energy does the United States consume?
the United States only has ____% of the world's population consuming the world's energy
~4.6% of world population
What is replacement fertility
the total fertility rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels.
What does it mean to be endemic?
(of a plant or animal) native and restricted to a certain place
What is Carrying Capacity (k)
the maximum number of individuals an environment can support indefinitely, without environmental impact
How does the carrying capacity (k) relate to population dynamics?
environmental constraints and human values affect the carrying capacity (k)
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System
How is GIS used for studying science?
it accounts for anything relating to geography
What is the IPAT equation?
explain the "I" variable in IPAT
explain the "P" variable in IPAT
explain the "A" variable in IPAT
explain the "T" variable in IPAT
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
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