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AP Environmental Science Chapter 2
Terms in this set (46)
a desire to conquer and exploit nature as quickly as possible. (example = 1700s and early 1800s logging in Midwestern America)
relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality.
relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity
a person who values natural resources because of their usefulness for practical purposes but uses them sensibly and carefully
a person who believes in protecting nature because all forms of life deserve respect and consideration
council on environmental quality
NEPA established this council to monitor the required EISs and report directly to the president. The council had no enforcement powers and NEPA was generally considered innocuous, generally more of a statement of good intentions than a regulatory policy. Environmental activists took people, corporations, and the federal government to court to challenge their EISs
full cost accounting
the process of evaluating and presenting to decision makers the relative benefits and costs of various alternatives
all of Earth's resources and processes that sustain living organisms, including humans; excluding minerals, forests, soils, groundwater, clean air, wildlife and fisheries
national income accounts
represent the total income of a nation for a given year. Two measures used in national income accounting are gross domestic product and net domestic product
gross demestic product (GDP)
the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year
net domestic product (NDP)
represents the net book value of all goods and services produced within a nation's geographic borders over a specified period of time
when consumption or production of a product has a harmful effect borne by people who are not directly involved in the market exchange for a product, the side effect is external cost
marginal cost of pollution
the added cost for all present and future members of a society for an additional unit of pollution
marginal cost of abatement
the added cost for all present and future members of society by reducing one unit of a given type of pollution
when pollution is less than optimal, the cost of reducing the pollution exceeds the harm caused by the pollution
command and control regulations
pollution-control laws that work by setting limits on levels of pollution
incentive based regulation
pollution control laws that work by establishing emission targets and provide industries with incentives to reduce emissions
discharge programs/ allow a holder to discharge a certain amount of pollutant. The amount of permits a holder can obtain is regulated by the government
emission reduction credits (ERCs)
industries producing a specific pollutant can buy or sell permits. The permits in this case/situation are called ERCs
a field of applied ethics that considers the moral basis of environmental responsibility and how far this responsibility extends
General Revision Act (1891)
gave the president authority to establish forest reserves on public (federally owned) land.
Antiquities Act (1906)
authorized the president to set aside national monument sites (i.e. Badlands, South Dakota)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
formed in 1970. An agency established by the United States government to coordinate federal programs aimed at combating pollution and protecting the environment.
National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) 1970
A key provision of this act was that the federal government must consider the environmental impact of a proposed federal action, such as financing a highway or dam construction. This was the basis for EISs
Environmental Impact Statements (EISs)
accompany every federal recommendation or proposal for legislation. Help federal officials make informed decisions. includes the following:
the nature of the proposal and why it is needed
the environmental impacts of the proposal, including short-term and long-term effects and any adverse environmental effects of the proposal is implemented
alternatives to lessen the adverse effects of the proposal.
John James Audubon (1781 - 1851)
painted portraits of birds and other animals in their natural surroundings. His work aroused public interest in the wildlife of North America.
Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862)
US writer, observed nature near Walden Pond, Massachusetts. Theorized about how people could simplify lives to live in harmony with nature.
George Perkins Marsh (1801 - 1882)
farmer, linguist, diplomat, wrote Man and Nature (one of the first discussions of humans as agents of environmental change, contained observations of environmental damage in Middle East and Vermont)
Theodore Roosevelt (1858 - 1919)
used the General Revision Act of 1891 to put 17.4 million hectares of forest, primarily in the West, out of reach to loggers. Utilitarian conservationist.
Gifford Pinchot (1865 - 1946)
the first head of US Forest Service. Utilitarian conservationist. Supported expanding national forests and harvesting trees at the same rate that they regrow (sustainability)
John Muir (1838 - 1914)
biocentric preservationist. Founded Sierra Club, a conservation group still around today that is active on environmental issues.
Franklin Roosevelt (1882 - 1945)
established the Civilian Conservation Corps which employed more than 175,000 men to plant trees, make paths and roads in national parks and forests, built dams to control flooding and perform other activities to protect natural resources.
Aldo Leopold (1886 - 1948)
was a wildlife biologist and environmental visionary who was influenced in the conservation movement of the mid- to late 20th century. His textbook, Game Management, was published in 1933 and supported the passage of a 1937 act in which new taxes on sporting weapons and ammunition funded wildlife management and research. Also wrote philosophically about humanity's relationship to nature and the need to conserve wilderness area in A Sand County Almanac (1949).
Wallace Stegner (1909 - 1993)
penned "Wilderness Essay" 1962. written to a commision conducting a national inventory of wilderness lands, helped create support for passage of the Wilderness Act 1964.
Rachel Carson (1907 - 1964)
wrote about interrelationships among living organisms, including humans and natural environment. Silent Spring 1962 - wrote about indiscriminate a use of pesticides.
Paul Ehrlich 1968
published The Population Bomb, which described the damage occurring to Earth to support such a huge population, including the depletion of essential resources such as fertile soil, groundwater, and other living organisms. Raised public awareness of the dangers of overpopulation and triggered debates on how to deal effectively with population issues.
The Population Bomb
Paul Ehrlich, 1968, published The Population Bomb, which described the damage occurring to Earth to support such a huge population, including the depletion of essential resources such as fertile soil, groundwater, and other living organisms. Raised public awareness of the dangers of overpopulation and triggered debates on how to deal effectively with population issues.
in the spring of 1970, urged Harvard graduate, Denis Hayes, to organize the first Earth Day. Now there was a generally perceived environmental movement.
Harvard graduate, organized first Earth day in 1970
When was the first Earth Day and why is this significant?
The first Earth Day happened in the spring of 1970. It was significant because it was the first time the environmental movement was so widely recognized. It awakened US environmental consciousness to population growth, overuse of resources, pollution, and degradation of the environment. 20 million people around the US planted trees, cleaned roadsides and riverbanks, marched in parades. Set of a lot of Environmental legislation.
Which law is the cornerstone of US Environmental law? Why?
NEPA, signed into law in 1970, is the cornerstone. It was created after the Environmental Protection Agency was created. It serves as a cornerstone in environmental policy because it voiced concerns (even at a preliminary level) of environmental problems (pollution, conservation etc). It influenced the decision to pass future environmental laws and policies.
Why do the national income accounts provide an incomplete estimate of national economic performance?
In terms of environment, they do not reflect how a country handles their resources and the cost/benefits of resource depletion.( i.e. natural capital)
an understanding of our place in the world based on human superiority and dominance over nature, the unrestricted use of natural resources, and an increased economic growth to manage an expanding industrial base)
the deep ecology worldview
an understanding of our place in the world based on harmony with nature, a spiritual respect for life, and the belief that humans and all other species have an equal worth
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