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23 terms

Chapter 12: Personality

STUDY
PLAY
Personality
An individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling
Self-Report
A series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems (true or false questions to questions such as "i often feel like breaking things)
Projective Techniques
A standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individuals personality
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A person is shown a card and asked "what might this be?" What they say reflects their personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A person is shown a card and asked to tell a story about what is happening in the picture. Reflects a persons personality
Trait
A relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
Big Five
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion
Psychodynamic Approach
Personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness- motives that can also produce emotional disorders
Dynamic Unconscious
An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest desires, and the person;s inner struggle to control these forces (level that most strongly influences personality)
ID
The part of the mind containing the drives present at birth. Source of our needs, wants, desires, and impulses. Particularly to our sexual and aggressive drives
Pleasure Principle
The psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse (wish?)
Ego
The component of personality that enables us to deal with life's practical demands
Reality Principle
The regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying immediate needs and function effectively in the real world
Superego
Consists of a set of guidelines, internal standards, and other codes of conduct that regulate and control our behaviors, thoughts, and fantasies
Defense Mechanisms
Reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses
Rationalization
Involves supplying a reasonable sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal one's underlying motives or feelings
Reaction Formation
Involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version their opposite (being overly nice to someone you hate)
Projection
Involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses into another person or group (it's not so bad to have bad qualities if someone else has them too)
Regression
When the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by retrieving to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development (return to thumb sucking)
Displacement
Involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less-threating alternative (snapping at someone because you had a bad day at work)
Identification
Helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristic of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope (an abusive parent may cause child to become abusive also)
Sublimation
Involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities (football, art, rugby, dancing)