(e) Answers 1 and 2 are false, according to the 3rd law, which states that whenever one body exerts a force on a 2nd body, the 2nd body exerts an oppositely directed force of equal magnitude on the 1st body. It does not matter whether one of the bodies is stationary or whether it collapses.

Answer 3 is false, b/c according to the 3rd law, Sam and his sister experience forces of equal magnitudes during the push-off. Since Sam has the greater mass, he flies off with the smaller acceleration, according to the 2nd law.

Answer 4 is false, b/c in catching and throwing the ball each astronaut applies a force to it, and according to the 3rd law, the ball applies an oppositely directed force of equal magnitude to each astronaut. These rxn forces accelerate the astronauts away from each other, so that the distance b/t them increases.