22 terms

Biology Chapter 8 - Photosynthesis

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adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy molecule consisting of adenine (base), ribose (5-carbon sugar), and 3 phosphate groups
heterotroph
organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores)
autotroph
organisms that make their own food
photosynthesis
process by which autotrophs use energy from sunlight to produce high energy carbohydrates
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
molecule consisting of adenine (base), ribose (5-carbon sugar), and 2 phosphate groups
made when energy is released from ATP
using biochemical energy
Na⁺/K⁺ pump (active transport)
movement - cilia & flagella
protein synthesis
making light (bioluminescence)
response to chemical signals (cell surface)
photosynthesis chemical equation
6CO₂ + 6H₂O →(light)→ C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
pigment
light-absorbing molecules
chlorophyll
main type of pigment found in plant cells (2 kinds - chlorophyll a & chlorophyll b)
thylakoid
saclike interconnected photosynthetic membranes that are arranged in stacks inside the stroma of the chloroplast
stroma
inner fluid portion of the chloroplast where thylakoids and grana are located
NADP⁺
electron carrier used to transport pairs of electrons (and H) during photosynthesis
light-dependent reactions
first set of chemical reactions in photsynthesis

use energy from sunlight to produce energy rich compounds like ATP (& electron carrier NADP⁺)

take place within the thylakoid membranes

water is required

oxygen is released (byproduct)
light-independent reactions
uses ATP & NADPH molecules from light-dependent reactions and CO₂ to make high-energy sugars (glucose)

take place in the stroma

also called the Calvin cycle
photosystems
clusters of thylakoids and proteins surrounded by accessory pigments needed for the light-dependent reactions
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that move high energy electrons to generate ATP
Calvin cycle
other name for light-independent reactions that use ATP & NADPH to produce stable high energy sugars (glucose)

net total glucose produced - 6CO₂ needed to make 1 C₆H₁₂O₆
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
temperature, water, light
granum (grana)
stack of thylakoids
stoma (stomata)
pores on the underside of leaves where O₂ is released and CO₂ is taken in
mesophyll
cells in leaves that contain chlorophyll
chloroplast
organelle within mesophyll cells that carry out photosynthesis