Students are given opportunities to construct their own meanings onto new pieces of knowledge.
What are Piaget's four stages of development?
1. Sensory motor stage (from birth to age two 2. Preoperation stage (ages 2 - 7 or early elementary 3. Concrete operational (ages 7-11 or upper elementary) 4. Formal operational (ages 7-15 or late elementary/high school) Stages Precious Children Follow
What are developmentally oriented teachers approach teaching?
They have a respect for their emerging capabilities.
What is Gardner's multiple intelligence theory?
a theory that states that students learn in at least 7 different ways, including verbal/linguistic, quantitative, interpersonal, musical, intrapersonal, and spatial.
What is the theory of metacognition?
The study of how to help the learner gain understanding about how knowledge is constructed.
What is the cognitive approach?
An approach to learning that first helps the learner gain understanding about how knowledge is constructed, and second, arms that learner with the conscious tools for constructing that knowledge.
What is differentiated instruction
the concept that because students have different ways of learning, teachers must utilize different methods of teaching.
What are critical thinking skills?
When a student learns how to apply knowledge to a specific subject area; but more importantly, the student knows how to apply that information in other subject areas.
What are individualized portfolios?
performance-based assessments that allow teachers to chart students' academic and emotional growth.
What is deductive reasoning?
General concepts or princeples supported by specific examples
What is inductive reasoning?
drawing conclusions from information or data
What are mnemonics?
memorization techniquews that rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs and lists of data
What is the social theory?
the use of theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and larte-scale social structures.
What is direct instruction?
a teaching method that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons with small learning increments.
What is discovery learning?
a learning technique that involves students solving problems by using their own experience and prior knowledge to determine what truths can be learned.
What is case method?
An instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems of practical applications.
What is homogenous grouping?
A classroom organizational concept where students are grouped according to ability.
What is heterogeneous grouping?
A classroom organizational concept where students are grouped according to mixed ability.
What is motivation
an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior
What are mastery goals?
goals characterized by students who strive to increase their ability and knowledge.
What are performance approach goals?
goals characterized by students who strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities.
What are performance avoidance goals?
Goals characterized by students who are driven by fear of failure and avoid situations where their abilities are exposed.
What is extrinsic motivation?
strategies that are characterized by motivating students through utilizing rewards for good behavior.
What is an individual education plan (IEP)?
a plan that provides an academic framework for a student with a disability.
What is a behavior modification program?
a course of action designed to help a student deal with emotional or behavioral disorders.
What is neurosis?
a psychological disorder that is characterized by general distress
What is psychosis?
a psychological disorder that is characterized by a loss of contact with reality.
What is early infantile autism?
a disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication.